Thursday, January 31, 2019

The Extraordinary Contributions of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet :: Essays Papers

The Extraordinary Contributions of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet There are usually held stereotypes that women in the early twentieth ascorbic acid were passive or piddling in affecting the development of the Hesperian Frontier. However, women in azimuth during this clipping period helped shape history in a multitude of ways. maven area impacted by the function of women during the early twentieth century was medicine. An area greatly dominated by males, medicine may not have advanced as successfully in Southern genus Arizona if it had not been for the efforts of seven women from St. Joseph, Missouri. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet made profound contributions to the Western Frontier in many ways. They severely impacted both areas of education and medicine in Arizona. By exploring the Sisters various contributions, this paper will uncover the significance of the Carondelet Sisters role in the development of the Western Frontier. In the early twentieth century, pioneers began to oversupply the area of Southern Arizona. Among them were the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet Emerentia Bonnefoy, Monica Corrigan, Euphrasia Suchet, Hyacinth Blanc, Martha Peters, Ambrosia Arnichaud, and Maxine Croisat (Bryne and Cammack). In 1870, these seven women began the tiring and rigorous journey from St. Louis to Tucson, traveling by rail, sea and wagon. The Sisters came to Tucson on a mission to help Jean Baptiste Salpointe, who was a Bishop in the area. They were to teach in Tucsons first school, which would transform the ways of education in the Western Frontier. Before the Carondelet sisters arrival, little had been done in the state of Arizona in the means of education. The Sisters established education in the area and contributed to the demise of the minus attitudes that parents had about raising their children in the West. Before these contributions, many parents found it infallible to move to a town or settlement where there would be to a greater extent advantages for their children. Mother did not let any of the unusual spiritedness about us interfere with our bringing up, a young Arizona girl recalled. Except for the desire of giving us a more extended education than we could get in the state at that time, I am sure my father and mother would have remainedinstead of removing to stark naked Mexico (Myres, pg.

The Works of Phillis Wheatley Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

The Works of Phillis WheatleyBiographyPhillis Wheatley was born in West Africa slightly 1753. Sometime after her birth, she was brought to the States and purchased by John Wheatley in 1761. He turned Phillis over to his wife, Susanna, to work as a personal maid. later realizing Phillis intellect, the Wheatley family encouraged Phillis to study the Bible and record English and Latin literature, annals and geography.Wheatleys first poem was published in a Rhode Island theme in 1767. Poems on Various Subjects consisted of thirty-eight poems written by Wheatley, and it could be found in London in 1773. Wheatley died on December 5, 1784.* banter of Wheatleys WorkThe poetry of Phillis Wheatley should be considered very controversial and powerful. The contented of Wheatleys poetry contains the muscle needed to strike controversy and power, provided it also must be understood within the context of history. Wheatley was a black slave writing very methodic poetry in the States during a time when African-the Statesns were considered to be less than animals. Reading and writing was not an option given to an overwhelming majority of slaves. Wheatley was able to do some(prenominal) with ease, and her white masters encouraged her to do so.The fact that Wheatleys poetry was read in her time is another impressive factor. She was black and a female, yet she received a decent amount of readership. In addition, she was reckon for her art. However, the controversy and power existed not only within the time end Wheatley lived in, but they also existed within the content of her poetry.On Being Brought from Africa to America praised the salvation that Wheatley received by coming to America and being undefended to Christianity. She also ... ... Wheatley stands as a pioneering figure of African-American poetry (Gates xi). Wheatley has provided redoubted inspiration for African-American literature. Zora Neale Hurston, Lorraine Hansberry and Toni Morrison are among the many writers that Wheatley has enticed, and she will continue to influence many more considering her works are still published and read worldwide.Works CitedGates, Henry Louis Jr. Foreword. The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley. Ed. John C. Shields. bare-assed York Oxford UP, 1988. xi.Gates, Henry Louis Jr., and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York W.W. Norton, 1997. 164-167.Wheatley, Phillis. On Being Brought from Africa to America, Atheism and An Address to the Deist. The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley. Ed. John C. Shields. New York Oxford UP, 1988. 18, 130, 131.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Exile :: essays research papers

Controversy of the Exile     After translation 2 Kings 25 and the dickens articles, the main source of contrast between these two sourcs is the amount of detail they go into on different aspects of the Exile. The Biblical reading mentions King Nebuchadnezzar and his capture of King Zedekiah, the efforts of General Nebuzaradan and his detailed destruction and swag of Jerusalem and the Temple, the capturing and execution of Judah&8217s chief officers and priests, Judah&8217s revolt against Gedaliah and fleeing to Egypt, and the benevolence King Evil-merodach of Babylon demonstrated towards Jehoiachin. The articles, however, mentioned nothing of to do with all of these circumstances. They concentrated, instead, on the purport in Judah during the Exile.      The Biblical picture of keep in Judah during the Exile was expressed in only a few verses. wizard states, &8220But the poorest of the people were left to farm the land (2 Kings 2512). This gives us little information to track down with, and all that can be assumed is that not many people were left in Jerusalem, and those that were, farmed. Whether they farmed for themselves, or for Babylon cannot be reasonably determined from this one verse. Later on, we see that whatever underground guerrilla forces were also left in Judah as they kill Gedaliah and fled to Egypt. Other than this, we know nothing from 2 Kings 25 about life in Judah during the Exile. The articles, however, give us much more light into life in Judah during these times. Graham illustrates that the people that civiliseed in Jerusalem, Mozah, and Gibeon during the Exile were primarily vinedressers and plowmen. 2 Kings 25 does not give us enough information to hasten known that people worked in these three cities. Their work, however, was not for themselves, but for the great power of Babylon, as can be illustrated in an engraving on a jar that read, &8220belonging to the lord in refer ence to the work done by the people for the Babylonian king. This, also, was not explicitly illustrated in 2 Kings 25. The king of Babylon collected the goods produced and used them to better the Babylonian saving and the august crown. Governor Gedaliah also was expected to have overseen people of Judah work to produce wine, fruit, and oil for Babylon. Outside Benjamin, people worked to make perfume, especially balm, for the royal crown of Babylon. The insight Graham gives us into the work done at Mizpah stresses an important point that 2 Kings 25 leaves out.

Discuss the emergence of realism in theatre

force field and Performance Lecturer Ms Marcelle Theuma First term Discuss the outgrowth of realism in theatre at the turn of the 20th hundred and how you think it influenced calculatewrights like Anton Chekhov, Henrik Ibsen, prideful Strindberg and George Bernard Shaw. Miriana Borg Second year Group 2A world in the theatre was a general movement in the later 19th century that steered theatrical texts and performances toward greater fidelity to real life.The realist dramatists Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg in Scandinavia and Anton Chekhov in Russia, and George Bernard Shaw, rejected the complex and artificial lotting of the well-made play and instead treated themes and conflicts belonging to a real, contemporary society. Henrik Ibsen was born in Norway in 1828. His mature work may be read as an effort to come to terms with realism, the reality of his early life and the reality of society as a whole. Ibsen is perhaps best known for 8 plays he wrote in Italy and Germany. B y separating himself physically from his homeland, he gained the freedom and attitude to criticize it.Ibsen embarked on a series of practical(prenominal) prose plays exposing contemporary problems in contemporary Norwegian settings. Concentrating directly on Norwegian society, he turn to universal concerns, for the social problems that provide the context for these plays were instantly recognizable to audiences. Among them the suspense of womens rights in A Doll House (1879), hereditary syphilis in Ghosts (1881), and municipal corruption in An Enemy of the People (1882). Ibsens realistic plays take place in three-dimensional rooms, rather than against tlat painted or architectural backdrops.Strindberg, and Chekhov each plunge a different dramatic model potential in the realistic mode evolved by Ibsen. Of the three, the Irish-born George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) most fully acknowledged his debt to Ibsen. Shaw believed that Ibsen fundamentally had modify the theatrical formula d rawn from the French Boulevard plays by incorporating a new intellectual vigor in them. George Bernard Shaw was born in 1856 and he was know for his witty humor. He made fun of societes notion using for the purpose of educating and changing. His plays tended to show the accepted attitude, then demolished attitude piece showing his own solutions.Some of his works include Arms and the Man (1894) which is about cacoethes nd war and honor and Pygmalion (1913) which shows the transforming of a flower girl into a society woman, and exposes the phoniness of society. Chekhov is known more for poetic expiration and symbolism, compelling psychological reality, people trapped in social situations, hope in futureless situations. He claimed that he wrote comedies others think they are sad and tragic. Characters in ChekhoVs plays be to save a fate that is a direct result of what they are. His plays have an illusion of plotlessness.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Marketing Research Report for Canadian Energy Drink

Marketing question Report Good4U Drinks co. Exporting genus Castor sound yield Line to India Prep bed for Richard Debanks, handler of Marketing, GOOD4USports Nutrition 15621 Marine Drive black-and-blue Rock, British Columbia V4B 1E1Canada Emailemail&160protected com Prep atomic number 18d by calefacient Point Marketing DepeshMohindra, Ankush Sharma, Gautam Sharma CONTENTS 1.Richard Debanks Hot Point Marketing Director of Marketing 80 Rouge River Drive GOOD4USports Nutrition Toronto, Ontario 15621 Marine Drive, unobjectionable rock, Canada British Columbia , Canada M1B 6K3 V4B 1E1Dear Mr. Richard Debanks, Hot Point Marketing is a group of Marketing Management students at Centennial College who atomic number 18 determined to fulfil and succeed. Our team boasts a diverse background in experience. With our collective skills we strain to impart GOOD4UDrinks co. with the hazard to launch their crossway line of beaver buzz postal code crapulences in India. Attached is a c opy of our grocerying interrogation identify which explains how we pick up evaluated the business opportunities for the comp all in India and akinwise the method actingologies and sources we have employ..We appreciate your cooperation and assistance and thank you for taking the cadence to read our report . We be indebted to you for helping us apply our knowledge and skills. We ask forward to hearing from you. Yours Respectfully, Depesh Mohindra Director of Hot Point Marketing? executive SUMMARY The foodstuff of ability intoxications in India has witnessed an augment of to the highest degree 50% from 2006-2011 crossing the Rs 600 crore ($109 one thousand thousand CAD) in 2011. Beaver thrum Canada as a new entrant in the vigour sup commercialize whoremaster gain a probatory merchandise piece of ground in the foodstuff repayable to its preposterous flavours and product line of postal code drinks.The market is predominate by blushful Bull, and other nil drinks grease worry Monster, pervert9, ripe throttle and thirty. This research report explains in detail the business opportunity for Beaver seethe Canada in the Indian energy drink market. and similarly explains how the product should be marketed in order to gain a evidential market sh atomic number 18 and increase the sales volume. It contains information on discombobulate market situation, marketing objectives of the product and also the marketing actions to be interpreted to achieve the marketing objectives.The document also explains about the sundry(a) methodologies used to conduct the research and how entropy was interpreted from the various sources. ? INTRODUCTION (Beaver Buzz Canada) Good4u Drinks co. was established in 2001 in Vancouver, British Columbia by Andrew Drayson and Richard DeBanks (nutrition). They are known for making sports nutrition drinks which include drinks for endurance, recovery, calorie burning and tranquility and also Beaver Buzz product li ne of energy drinks (overview). Beaver Buzz was created by Good4u Drinks co. in 2005 as a purely Canadian energy drink that Canadians will be extremely pleased to conjure as their own.Beaver Buzz became an instant hit after its launch in the Canadian market to such an extent that the Ameri contri furtheres also started to demand for their product, so the company started selling the product via internet to the Ameri stubs initially and the company launched the product line later on in August 2009 in the united States (Buzz B. ). The Buzz Beaver product line is also available in the UK by the name of Bulldog Buzz (Buzz W. t. ). Buzz Beaver is utilize to efficiency in all its efforts, from the tiniest details, to the greatest venture. Above all, the company is give to provide the customers with the best beverages on the planet. Buzz B. ) BUSINESS OPPURTUNITY ( vigour drink market in India) Energy drinks contain legal stimulants, vitamins and minerals, including caffeine, guarana an d taurine, various types of ginseng, malt dextrin, carnitine, creatine monohydrate and ginkgo biloba. Some contain high levels of glucose and glucose. This category typically include caffeinated drinks which are used for boosting energy. Currently the market of energy drinks in India is expand by two major firms namely Red Bull and Cloud 9. Beaver Buzz can break the ice in this market by introducing its unique energy drink line of products.Flavours Saskatoon Berry, minatory current, Citrus, Core energy, Green tea and pink grapefruit can make the brand famous in the country as they are new. as well their energy shot version which is a small black bottleful of 60 ml can help them capture a significant market share (Buzz B. ). According to marketing research company datamonitor Plc, the market for energy drinks in India was estimated at Rs 600 crore($109 million CAD) in the division 2011, so far at a young age when compared to carbonate beverages, which was valued at Rs 7000 cro re($1. 27 billion CAD).Between 2006 and 2011, the market of energy drinks in India has grown perpetually at a rate of 50%. Contrary to that the growth of carbonate drinks experienced a decrease by 0. 5% during the same period. With an increase in number of modern retail stores the energy drinks market is evaluate to reach Rs 1100 crores ($197 million CAD) by the end of 2012. This decrease in the market of change drinks and a high rate of growth in the energy drink market can be linked to the change in perception of the Indian youth towards carbonated drinks. The sedulousness foresees a massive potential for energy drinks.The department of energy drinks is one of the fastest increment separate in the ready to drink category, reason being the youth centric population of India and also growing number of urban areas. The energy drink market till a year back was reign by Red Bull and Cloud9. Sales started to pick up with the entry of recognized makeers such as Pepsi, Amway an d the latest entry of Coca dummy and GT&T proves the market potential of the energy drink industry in India. The market players in this category are adopting contrasting styles of unique marketing strategies like distributing free samples at schools and colleges before launching their products.They also sponsor big events like sporting events and fashion shows to attract youth. These promotions are through to build a relationship of the brand with the target customer. This is a part of marketing communication strategy. The major brands in the energy drink market are Red bull, SJ XXX, Burn, Sobe, Power Horse, Amway and Rock star. The market share for the following brands is determined by the following pie chart. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Demand trends in the energy drink market (Consumer Behaviour) It has been observed that most of the energy drink users in India drink it because of the energy it provides.Basically a majority of students do in energy drinks because it gives them ener gy and due to the high concentration of caffeine in the energy drinks it allows them to stay up all night and because of this they are able to subscribe better. They are motivated by the self esteem and stats that good grades provide them with. The students are sensitive to the price of the energy drinks as the energy drinks are priced higher when compared to carbonated beverages, if the energy drinks were priced lower the consumption of the students is bound to increase.There are also certain types of energy drink consumers in the country who opine that energy drinks are superior to carbonated beverages and therefore they should be exchange at a premium price. These passel also believe that by drinking premium priced energy drinks they can impress others as non everyone can afford these products on perpetual basis. So, these flock look towards maintaining a status by consume energy drinks. There are approximately other important customers of the target segment also like pe ople who like to party hard and stay awake all night. They lead to use energy drinks because they want to stay awake throughout the night.They call back waking up for the unscathed night very important as they want to enjoy with their friends. Its the sense of belongingness to the group that these type of consumers value. They are non sensitive to the price of the product as they do not use the product very frequently they use it only for the aim of staying awake throughout the night, so price of the product does not count to them. One of the most interesting group of consumers has been those who have started using energy drinks as a substitute for alcohol. This is because they are not comfortable overwhelming alcohol anymore.These consumers feel that it is difficult not consuming anything or consuming carbonated beverages in front of people who are consuming alcohol. sectionalization of the target market The map below shows various factors taken into friendliness while doin g segmentation Based on the above factors the following triad segments were identified College students- The age of the college students range from the ones who are teenagers to those who are post graduates. This segment sees a variety of constituent individuals like energy, power of purchasing, preferences, shifting spatial relation towards alcoholic beverages.These types of people have adopted snacks as alternative to unbroken meals because of the tight schedule that they have. Energy drinks are viewed as something above carbonated beverages but not alcohol, hence a tradition among this group. Moreover, because they have to contract late at nights, energy drinks are becoming popular among them (Indias youth). Working Professionals- These people represent the young working population of India. These people are mainly the employees of MNCs and BPOs. They consume energy drinks when they go to pubs and bars on weekends to relax after a long week of work.They also consume energy dr inks when they are working on certain occasions like when they are suffering from stress and fatigue. An energy drink at this time works as a energy booster for them and hence becomes an unambiguous election for them (Indias youth). Socialites/Party Animals- These are the people who par regular visit to pubs, parties and discotheques. Therefore, energy drink consumption is normal for these people. Moreover, energy drink act as an alternative to alcoholic beverages for these king of people. Also, they are in a habit of mixing energy drinks with alcohol to serve their decide (Indias youth).Evaluation of major brands Red Bull Energy Drink Red Bull is only functional in the energy drink segment of the beverages market. The product is an example of functional drink. The functional foods are those kinds of food that suffice to consumer preferences in terms of well-being and performance. Some of the major multinational finespun drink companies are stressful to enter this segment of fu nctional drinks in the country because the traditional market of flabby drinks is approaching a due date stage and the rate of growth is minimal. For these multinationals, new functional drinks offer opportunities for a new business growth.Red Bull- Positioning General aligning strategy The brand is positioned as something that energizes body and heading. It was also intended that Red Bull be drunk whenever consumers needed a lift, whether it was morning, noon or night. This broader type of positioning was developed to increase growth into a variety of market segments. Their advertize strategy didnt specify any particular consumption occasions, which tho helped them to elastically position themselves in the market. Pricing strategy Red Bull coterie the price of it product at least 10% higher than any of its competitors in the segment.This doer they used product philosophy to position themselves into the market. The 250ml can of Red Bull is 300% more expensive than the tradit ional kooky drinks in terms of per ounce. Market Share The brand has managed to maintain at least 60% of the market share in this category since its launch. XXX Energy Drink This Brand currently comes in two different forms namely REJUVE and NICOFIX. NICOFIX contains NPR which is used to reduce the nicotine urge. This is useful for people who are trying to leave cigarettes. REJUVE is a new type of energy drink which is in particular designed to suite Indian taste buds.It is made to energize the mind and the body and also to enhance the immunity system of the body, in turn, increase the stamina of the body. Its 250 ml bottle I priced at Rs 75. Monster Energy Drink It is depicted by a logo of three claws it is distributed by Hansen Natural Corporation, Corona California. It includes ingredients like guarana, caffeine and glucose and is designed to artificially convey energy in the body. Although it is not widely advertised in the media unflustered it receives a large amount of re cognition from the sponsorships that it provides to the various sporting events just about the country.METHODOLOGY Data collection from supplemental resources A significant number of lower-ranking resources were available about the energy drink segment were available on the internet. We have also taken references from the various marketing research reports on the energy drink industry to evaluate the most essential features demand to formulate the plan of action. This provides us with a basic knowledge of the features that play a significant role in the aimion of an energy drink. Data collection from prime resourcesData collection from primary resources can be done by interviewing various segments of people in depth to know the criteria to select an energy drink. We can use an online spread sheet to interview various people of various demographic profiles. Our objective of the exploratory research is to specify the questions that need to be included in the questionnaire for d escriptive research. Descriptive Research We have watchful a comprehensive questionnaire using the inputs of exploratory research. The soft copies of the surveys can be mailed various sections of the people. Also hard copies can be distributed to people who do not have email ids.The questionnaire was prepared for collecting primary source of data for the research. The questions were designed to do a study of marketing mix, segmentation and target market. The questions can help us to know their perceptions and awareness about energy drinks. DATA ANALYSIS The secondary data taken from the internet was mostly used to conduct this research report. This data was used as the required funding for the primary data collection methods was not available. But still we have mentioned about the method in the methodology that we will use if funding was available for primary data collection.The data used for the research was derived from various marketing research reports found on the internet. an d also some government sites on which we searched about business implications. The results found on the internet were analysed and cross referenced and thus only they were included in the research. BUSINESS IMPLICATIONS Legal and political factors In India, under PFA act 1954 no standards are there for energy drinks. infra the PFA rules 1955 the max limit of caffeine were reduced to 145ppm from 200ppm on recommendation by central committee on food standards.For inspection food preventative and standard authority established a proficient team to assemblage scientific literature and global positioning on usage of non carbonated and caffeine beverages and labelling and acclaim the limit under food regulations of caffeine in energy drinks. The team was supposed to recommend if there were any essay for using the energy drinks. The report determines that there was only addictive airscrew in the chemical used but not in the caffeine. Caffeinated drinks up to 200 ppm are added as a fl avouring agent but above 200 ppm it is an efficient component. The performance of caffeine at 320 ppm demand to be determined long with justified reason for solving a cut-off restricts at 320ppm. Economic Factors Economic factor influences the power of purchasing of bright customer and cost of capital of a firm. In macro-economic the examples of factors are as follows exchange rates, lump rate, interest rates, economic growth. The last reported inflation rate in India in June 2010 was 13. 73 percent. The economic system is not much designed and extensive variations among declares and areas within declares are there due to which we might have to create distinguished promotional strategies.Social-cultural factors The Indians are informed about health and wants to be away from diseases of heart and digestive system, obesity, bone, inconvenience in joints, anxiety and depression, lack of stamina and sleeplessness, etc. Indian consumers are more concerned about ingredients and healt h benefits to make product choice Indians confirms the nutritional information. Therefore health claims are demanded for food and beverages. Technological Factors The scientific factors can lower limitations to access, reduce the minimum effective development levels and rival freelancing decisions.Technological factors comprehend R and D activity, rate of technology change, technology incentives automation. decisiveness To conclude this proposal our team Hot Point Marketing would like to say that the energy drink market in India is worth$109 million dollars and there are only 4 major brands in the whole country so there is large scope for Brands like Beaver Buzz who have differentiated themselves from brands like red bull in Canada and still generate a gross income of around 600, 000 dollars a month, which means they are capable of doing the same in India.So, it will be full for Beaver Buzz Canada to launch its product line of Beaver Buzz energy drinks in India as the Indian ener gy drink market is growing at a rate of 40% every year and red bull owns 70% of the market share. Works Cited Buzz, B. (n. d. ). Beaver Buzz Energy. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http//www. beaverbuzz. com/about-beaverbuzz. htm Buzz, W. t. (n. d. ). Bulldog Buzz. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http//www. bulldogbuzz. co. uk/ Health, P. (n. d. ). Public health.Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http//www. publichealthgreybruce. on. ca/home/publications/Board/BOH_Resolutions/2011/GBHU%20BOH%20Motion%202011-16,%20Energy%20Drinks. pdf Indias youth. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 30, 2012, from financialexpress http//www. financialexpress. com/ newsworthiness/twothird-of-indias-youth-find-drinking-unacceptable/484312 nutrition, G. s. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http//www. gd4u. com/aboutus. htm overview, P. (n. d. ). Retrieved november 11, 2012, from http//www. gd4u. com/products. htm

Dabur Brand Revie

The brand bear on Dabur is derived from the words Da for Daktar or Doctor and bur from Burman. From those humble beginnings, the society has handsome into Indias tether manufacturer of consumer healthc ar, personal c are and food products. Over its 125 geezerhood of existence, the Dabur brand has stood for goodness through a natural lifestyle. An umbrella bring out for a variety of products, ranging from hair care to h unmatchabley, Dabur has consistently ranked among Indias top brands. Its brands are built on the foundation of trust that a Dabur offering will never cause anyone slightest of harm.The trust levels that this brand enjoys are phenomen eithery high. Dabur had a turnover of approximately US$ 750 Million (Rs. 3390. 9 Crore FY 09-10) amp Market Capitalisation of over US$ 3. 5 one million million (Rs 15500 Crore), Ner income of (INR) 425 Crore (2008-09)with brands like Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola and Real. The conjunction has kept an eye on new generations of guests with a range of products that cater to a modern lifestyle, while managing not to abandon ear deceptionr generations of loyal customers. The caller-ups growth rate rose from 10% to 40% Dabur Foods, a subsidiary of Dabur India is expecting to grow at 25%.Its brands of juices, doly, Real and Active, unneurotic make it the securities industry leader in the result succus course Value Mass securities industry value For money The brand trunaround wherefore? Over all(prenominal) s start down in FMCG Stiff competition To objective lens young india sizeablest consumer Modernize old brand equity- intangible asset Dabur in addition has reinvented the m some other logo Enter new category innovate offerings move as FMCG company Moved away from Umbrella branding outline Retaining Dabur as corporate brand identity Daburs virgin defacement Architecture 5 Power Brands Umbrella brand for juice and other foods aimed at p market consumer yield to be launched is Lemon Juice Branded harvest-time beverage market in India is estimated to be value Rs. 1,200 crore (nectars, drinks and juices combined)The fruit drink market Juice accounts 30%,Nectar10%, Fruit drinks60% COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Pepsi co Nimbooz has grown 29% coca plant Cola Minute Maid Nimbu Fresh- pulp base drink Parle LMN this has grown 30% Market size of Lemon Juice in India in Organized sector The unpackaged nimbu paani market in India is very commodious to put it in perspective, it is twice the size of the total carbonated low-key drinks industry. Indias Parle Agro, the name behind the LMN brand which launched a category ago, has outperformed the market growing 30 per cent. Of the 600m-case juice market, lemon juice drinks have a 44 per cent share. According to an industry report 120bn litres of beverages are consumed each year in India with 55 per cent of sales of Indian soft drinks during the spend months of March to May, and companies are keen to maximise growth in t his season.If following years summer is as hot as this one, a nimbu paani drink or third will definitely be in order pit market 1) Primary and secondary market randomness A and SEC B * Recreational * Fitness * Health life style * Sports Primary Market * Teens More experimental * Youth Experimental and to a greater extent(prenominal) buying power Working People who travels a lot * junior-grade Market Secondary market Travel Industry Airlines, Railways and Local witch Systems ,Recreational Movie Theatres, Malls, Amusement Parks, school, collages, hotels, restaurants Market Segmentation * Metropolitan Cities, major cities of the states, and townships. * absorption of Area Urban, Semi-urban, Rural. Climate Tropical * Age 8 and above * Users cover Lemon juice as a healthy drink. * Users drink fruit juice as a refreshing alternative to carbonated drinks.Users volitionally spend on products related to health and lifestyle. Users enjoy Lemon juice not only as a means of heal thy life, precisely as an intrinsically enjoyable Marketing strategy of Dabur Dabur should reinforce the sure homemade taste through aggressive marketing campaigns and have time-tested to appeal to the increasingly health-conscious Indian consumer by making them without artificial ingredients. Product Type lomon Juice Features Lemon Juice is a 100 per centum Lemon juice which will be produced and marketed by the Dabur ltd. Brand pull in Lemon Juice Product Life Cycle Our product lie in introduction period Low sales * High be per customer * Negative profits * Innovator customers * Few competitors Objective to make up awareness and trial * Offer a basic product * value at cost-plus * Selective distribution * Awareness dealers and early adopters * drag trial via heavy sales promotion * quad Distribution transplant Product location availability Modes of transportation * Pricing append mercenary discounts, deals and schemes Adopt sales oriented objective Have one damage po licy email&160protected 8 Rs/ 200Ml * Promotion Promotional Tactics Provide free samples in the market for the brand awareness AdvertisingTo our manoeuver audience by using the message showing a starter full of Lemon juice Drink this much every solar day Tie up promotional strategy with PVR, In film advertize scrapper Honda triggerman Honda Motors Limited, based in Delhi, India is a joint endanger surrounded by the Hero Group of India and Honda of Japan23 It has been referred to as the worlds biggest manufacturer of 2-wheeled motorized fomites since 2001, when it produced 1. 3 million motorbikes in a single year. During the fiscal year 2008-09, the company has sold 3. 28 million bikes and the net profit of the company stood at Rs. 1281. 7 crore, up 32% from the previous fiscal year. verification needed3 Hero Honda has been the mammothst two wheeler company in the world for nine serial years. The company had a market share of 41. 35% in the year 2008-2009 and over a 25 ye ar span it has crossed the 15 million unit milestone. Hero Honda sells more two wheelers than the second, third and fourth placed two-wheeler companies put together. 4 The companys most popular model is the Hero Honda Splendor, which is the worlds largest-merchandising motorcycle, selling more than one million units per year Hero is the brand name used by the Munjal brothers for their flagship company Hero Cycles Ltd.A joint venture between the Hero Group and Honda Motor Company was established in 1984 as the Hero Honda company,India. During the 1980s, the company introduced motorcycles that were popular in India for their fuel economy and low cost. A popular advertising campaign based on the catchword Fill it Shut it Forget it that emphasised the motorcycles fuel efficiency helped the company grow at a double-digit pace since inception. Hero Honda has three manufacturing facilities based at Dharuhera and Gurgaon in Haryana and at Haridwar in Uttarakhand.These plants together are up to(p) of churning out 3. 9 million bikes per year. citation needed Hero Hondas has a large sales and service network with over 3,000 dealerships and service poses across India. Hero Hondas customer loyalty program,clarification needed the Hero Honda Passport Program, claims to be one of the largest programs of its winning in the world with over 3 million members Launch of New Prodcut Honda stroller A three Wheeler Cart will be a . 75 ton truck in the commercial vehicle segment which is dominated by large trucks. It can be called Indias succeeding(prenominal) generation mini truck .The sub one ton dozens were transported by the three wheeler goods carriers. Although the quality and performance of these three wheelers are less(prenominal) than desirable there was still huge demand for these vehicles. It is this market where TATA Ace is the only leading competitor . It is the transportation at the finish mile market that Ace has captured. Honda Cart will have all the qualit ies of a winner. It will be cute, the engine would be good interms of gasoline mileage and performance, the comfort factor can very much there and more over it is a Truck and not an Auto.Priced competitively at 2. 00 lakh to 2. 20 lakh, which is below Ace is a value proposition that no one can refuse. The brand will launched at a point where there was a need for transportation of good speedily and conveniently and in a cost effective manner. Need for the Honda Cart Honda Cart will be cost-effective means for local transport of miserable cargo in the long run. Previously, customers had to incur additional charges by undertake vehicles with a much larger payload for small cargo movements. imputable to pradhan mantri gramin sadak yojana , Road onnectivity is expected to greatly improve in rural areas ?It is envisaged that higher(prenominal) tonnages vehicles will be not allowed in cities ?In both the cases, all last mile distributing will be covered by large vehicles ?The excitin g production in this category is cumbersome , coupled with safety, befoulment amp comfort etc.. issues Market Research To understand the potential customer better. It found that there were two types of customers for Honda Cart cost sensitive customers, and others who determine return on investment (ROI).The company targeted ROI customers who were willing to pay a higher price but wanted low operating costs. proportional analysis The Honda Cart would provide excellent economy with oil swap required only for every 10,000 km when compared to three wheelers which required it for every 2,500 km. Evne TATA ACE required at every 9,000KM. The vehicle traveled at a top speed of 70 km per hour and had a mileage of 20 km per liter with a high payload capacity in compare to TATA ACE which has speed of 65 km per hour and 18km per liter as mileage. This enabled the owners to make more trips in less time.Bajaj Auto, Force Motors, Eicher, Piaggio and Ashok Leyland are very much on their way t o first appearance the one-ton four-wheeler space. The official further added, Players like Eicher and Swaraj Mazda, which are already hand in the 1. 5-ton truck space, will now shift their focus to one ton. Product Honda Cart. PLC- Entry stage. Brand Name Honda Cart Price 2. 00Lakh-2. 20Lakhs Place Tier II and III cities. Rural and semi urban. Promotion The company could offer a range of additional accessories such as vehicle protection system, music systems and even Ganesha idols.Apart from the hygiene quality Honda will in like manner look at the aspects of delight and value enhancers * Giving one Honda dredge in free in large villages and in big town give one Honda cart per free per 5 km sq feet area to goods carrier * Reduce pollutants as compared to 3 wheeler from 21 % to 40% Market scenario TATA ACE has captured 65% of the small commercial vechile segment Target Segment The target segment are those who want to upgrade from these three wheelers and one who carry/ upload tons of goods

Saturday, January 26, 2019

5 Bases of Power and Leadership Essay

When we mention the word Power most of the lot will think that post is evil, corrupt, self-serving, manipulative and hurtful. However, there is a tyrannical face to addressing index number acquisition, power-base development, and power use. When power is used in an honourable and purposeful way, there is nothing evil about it. Leadership is interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through communication process, toward the attainment of a undertake goal or goals. (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961, p. 24).Sales Leadership regularly acquires and uses power to accomplish specific work goals and to strengthen their own positions to empower sales rep rather than dominate them. There are five different powers that alter leadership which include expert power, referent power, legitimate power, reward power and coercive power. Expert power is define as a study source f personal power is expertise in resolving troubles and performing important task. ( French & Raven, 1959) Expert power is submited for those employees who need task direction.It also builds confidence in the leaders baron to teach and delegate tasks that the team needs to accomplish. The more important problem is to the target person, the greater the power derived by the agent from the possessing the necessary expertise to solve it. With the expert power it helps the leaders to develop and maintain a reputation for technical expertise and strong credibility. Moreover, Charisma leader prevail the expert power and also have insight into the needs, hopes, and values of following and are able to motivate commitment to proposals and strategies change.

Government Intervention Essay

The Ameri female genitalia presidential term is practically in our terrestrial lives, including our private lives. The judicature is basically e actuallything we do. It is the panache we work, the reason why we wait for a venerati one(a)r, the modal value we eat or drink to conclude, the way we live. neartimes it is a problem for most citizens unless some other times, it is the authentic reason why they live better and hold back everything they have. The presidential term is the tidy sum it is bringing up, entertainment, peace only can be completely different at certain periods of time.As a prevention from in any case untold politics intervention, the people of America have a representative dating since 1773,called the tea Party Movement. This movement wants the presidential term to stick to the real meaning and smell of the United States Constitution, meaning that the political relation should non use such impartiality as the Elastic clause. The Tea Party Move ment would also equivalent to see the political science reducing its speding, lower taxes and reducing the field of study debt and federal official budget deficit. This means in one phrase, relief to the people.And yet, doing so would dominate much government intervention in our lives. The Tea Party is standardised the real representative of the people, because it would same(p) to see the government follow uping everything the people request, which is mostly impossible because to maintain the law, the government has to follow the Constitution. Yet again, some of the governments interventions are necessary for us, like the famous healthcare and health insurances, the social securities, the military and even the food we eat.The Party thinks we should be left alone to use, organize and regulate our businesses, schools and other utilities. Therefore taking care of our own taxes and national debt. The Party thinks that the government goes too far with the taxation, national spe nding, and maintenance of public facilities. just now surprisingly, it doesnt dissent with the government totally. It is against the spontaneous abortion law in most Sates along with the government. It believes that no fetus should be removed prior to labor term and even if thither is a government agency of rape-pregnancy, it still believes that the victim hould carry the fetus until the end of the term. But for mostly everything else, the Tea Party Movement and the government still disagree with each other. The Tea Party Movement members believe that the government intervenes too much in the peoples business but yet, non intervening would probably hurt them and they would get mad at the government. 1) In reading your article about the Tea Party movement, it is difficult to see to it where the party stands on issues.Its members seem to want a strong military, but dont want to finance it they dont like social programs like Medicare, but readily accept their Medicare benefits th ey dont like the federal bailout of our financial markets, but would be angry if the government did nothing and their investments and retirements went down the drain they want strong border controls, but again dont want to pay for it. Their thinking is topsy-turvy and dangerous because if we do what they want they are going to be depressing with the consequences.They are a mass of contradictions. Which explains in one simple designate that, sometimes the Party exaggerates about what they want or not. The governments intervention, seen from my point of view is highly necessary for us living low its control. And when I say necessary, I mean in some fields. Lets arouse for example, sanitation. The citizens themselves can not really maintain a clean city, therefore we would need the governments economic aid but sometimes, the city governments probably think that they have bigger fish to fry instead of alter the streets.Lately, we have been seeing the streets so cover with coke, that they become ice right there. Why? Just because our representative persistent that there were too many jobs out there so he cut all of these jobs where people would have to clean the streets from the imprisoning carbon. This is a occurrence of minor intervention in a field where it is necessary. The government should be to a greater extent active in that field because when it does not reelect the citizens that diverseness of help which is necessary to them, it mostly turns against them.As a result of the snow accumulation, you ordain have accidents, lateness, and people will get a faulty perspective of the government. A quick and easy solution would only brood of creating fast and easy jobs where you would have people responsible of cleaning the streets from the snow and would also be very useful to their community and state. This field requires governments intervention but sometimes, the citizens might pass of its need and you can ever so have the garbage ollectors to do that but it still is not their responsibility.The next field requires more government intervention than that last one except that it is mostly better taken care of. Nowadays, education is very important. And it has very expanded from how it was two decades ago. This is what Milton Friedman has to say about the governments intervention in this field and its successful results. 2) Education is today by and large paid for and almost entirely administered by governmental bodies or non-profit institutions.This situation has developed gradually and is now taken so much for minded(p) that little explicit attention is any longer directed to the reasons for the redundant treatment of education even in countries that are predominantly idle enterprise in organization and philosophy. The result has been an indiscriminate extension of governmental responsibility. These intelligent details about the new education system explains how education is getting easier to access and how the governm ent plays a big role in its development. Education is so important and necessary that it is mostly paid for by the government itself.Which explains that the governments intervention in this field is both very necessary and satisfied. From kindergarten to senior year in high school, the government pays millions for ones education and after that, depending on your parents financial status, they will help you pay for college or even pay it for you. This is an example of when the governments intervention is necessary and satisfying. The governments intervention is exuberant in this field because it helps people to get an education which is going to be useful to both the country and the individual.By doing so, the American government gets a better perspective from foreigners and from its own citizens. This kind of resource will always be useful to the country. I believe the government should intervene more in the sanitation field, given the fact that the citizens can not accomplish some actions by themselves. I believe the government should have more workers in the sanitation field because it is necessary to have people cleaning the streets. By doing so, it would be a great advantage for both the state government and its citizens.Reducing by doing so, the multiple incidents and disagreements that would have happen if there were nobody to clean the streets and make it easier for people to circulate in the city. That would give more people an opportunity to pay their bills, put bread on their table, and stay out of trouble also. I think that the governments intervention in the education field is great, not too much not too less. I am grateful to the fact that the government has to pay for my education given the fact that I would not be capable to pay for it myself.The government pays for education, feed the students and even give them a warm place to be in all day. I in person do not see what else the government could do for its students while large-minded them thi s great opportunity of learning something that can be useful for them afterwards in life and giving them a way to put funds in their pocket. The government intervention is great in this field and I think it should maintain the status quo until they find a better way to improve the way they educate and instruct the American population, which is by the way very weak compared to some poor countries.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Problems in Mobile Communication Industry – Sri Lanka

summary applied science is an essential p cunning of any agate line and and then precedeprises should have genuinely clear understanding of their engine room of necessity and opportunities. Sri Lankan diligent Operators ar in a better position in depot of technology. Objective of this report is to analyze current technology level of expeditious wheeler dealers, their problem and the way of finding solutions using technology. Currently bustling talk assiduity is in a hazy situation. Although technology levels of mobile operators be comparatively spunky certain technologies behind be apply to shake rid of present problems of the industry.Here in this report such proficient problems argon discussed and upstart technologies argon proposed. Deploying mentioned technologies mobile operator will be adequate to oercome technological barriers as advantageously as a nonher(prenominal) issues of the industry. i List of skirts and foretells knave hedges circuit car d 2. 1 public tele conversationmunication Technologies????????????????????????? 4 Table 2. 2 Technology Comparison of Sri Lankan unsettled Operators??? 6 strains visualize 1. 1 mobile Subscriber harvest-festival (1991 2009 June)???????????????? 1 Figure 4. 1 Typical caseful pocketbookd Mobile profits???????????????????????????? 0 Figure 4. 2 HSPA Technology Roadmap???????????????????????????????????????? 11 Figure 4. 3 spheric Telecom Emissions 2002 2020????????????????????????? 12 Figure 4. 4 Envelope Curve of Mobile Technologies ???????????????????????? 14 Figure 4. 5 judge Growth of Mobile information manufacture??????????????????????? 14 ii List of Abbreviations BTS CDMA rim GPRS GSM HSPA HSPA iDEN IP LTE PDC SDH SHF TDM TDMA TRCSL UMTS WCDMA ? Base Transceiver Station ? code Division Multiple Access ? Enhanced Data rates for GSM ontogeny ? General Packet wireless Service ? Global System for Mobile ? highschool Speed Packet Access ? High Speed Packet Access ? Integrated digital Enhanced meshing ? Internet Protocol ? Long Term evolution ? Personal Digital Cellular ? Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ? highly High oftenness ? Tme Division Multiplexing ? Time Division Multiple Access ? Telecommunication convention Commission of Sri Lanka ? Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ? Wide exercise set Code Division Multiple Access iii Table of Contents Summary .. List of Tables and Figures ii List of Abbreviations iii 1 Introduction 1 1. 1 Objectives.. 1. 2 Methodology 2 2 Technology take of Mobile attention. 4 2. 1 History . 4 2. 2 Assessing Technology Level . 4 2. Bench Marking 6 3 Technology Problems 7 3. 1 Capacity Limitations .. .. 7 3. 2 creator Issues 3. 3 Frequency Spectrum Issues . 8 3. 4 BSC/MSC Boarders 9 3. 5 rise Loading . 9 4 Proposed Technologies .. 0 4. 1 part Based Transmission 10 4. 2 IP RAN .. 11 4. 3 EDGE Evolution for GSM . 11 4. 4 kB Technologies .. 12 4. LTE .. 13 5 6 Future of Mobile conversation industry . 15 Conclusion . 17 References .. 8 iv Mobile communication labor in Sri Lanka 1 Introduction Technology plays a snappy component part in todays business environments. Enterprises with appropriate technology are having a definite advantage everywhere the others in the competitive business environment. Therefore enterprises should have very clear understanding of their technology emergencys and opportunities. Many telecommunications service providers in the world are in the center of undergoing technical and structural changes, whilst at the same time experiencing major ontogeny.Competition and fast technological advancements drive the present telecommunications industry. In Sri Lanka Mobile discourse industriousness is rapidly ontogeny. More than 12 million Mobile social occasionrs are in Sri Lanka. Following figure shows the mobile subscriber growth. Cellular Subscriber Growth (1991 2009 June) 14,000,000 12,000,000 C u m u l a t i v e N o . o f S u b s c r i b e r s 10,000,000 8,000,000 Subscribers 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 Year Figure 1. 1 Mobile Subscriber Growth (1991 2009 June) computer address TRCSL Page 1Mobile parley perseverance in Sri Lanka Under a misty worldwide stinting cloud Sri Lankas economy grew in recent couple of eld, just like a shot at a low-pitched rate. The economy having achieved sustained growth over three decades averaging nearly 5% per annum, in conjunction with a modest population growth in comparison to other South Asiatic countries crossed the USD 2000 mark in per capita income. Notwithstanding conditions of uncertainty, coronation in al-Qaida modernizement continued at the macro level and Mobile converse industry has achieved a considerable growth.The economic realities and impudent food market developments during the run low year turned out to be a stress nookievas for in all mobile knell operators in Sri Lanka. Ruptures emerged and the industry had to search for ready(a) but durable fixes to rebriny viable. The entry of the fifth mobile ring operator, early in the year set the new reference impairment and forced a d declareward revision of pricing by all mobile operators. This ca employ a sharp reduction of the reference price by approximately 50%. Further to cutting prices, emulation in the industry intensified and this resulted in a sharp rise in denote and promotional activity.The combined effect of a significant cancel in prices and high promotional comprises compelled most industry players to consider life-threatening adjustments to their business models and structures, a process that led to job losses in the industry. Leading operators recorded s well-offly growth in business record in a growing market, but declining margins eroded r eveue animals prima(p) to operate losses. 1. 1 Objectives Main objectives of this repot are 1. Assess Technology Level of Sri Lankan Mobile Communication Industry 2. Identifying main technology issues in the industry 3.Proposing technological solution for those issues 1. 2 Methodology Literature value was done regarding the Sri Lankan and world Mobile communication industry. In the second stones throw responsible staff members were interviewed representing all five mobile operators. Their views and information store from literature survey Page 2 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka were analyzed. In addition to above Mobile communication equipment vendors were contacted for convocation information about new technologies and trends. Page 3Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 2 Technology Level of Mobile Industry In direct to examine the technology level and capability, framework developed by cat bear and Ramanathan (1995) can be physical exercised. This framework is base on the value arrange concept, which identifies the primary and support activities of a telecommunications service provider, and uses abuse by? step procedure to analyze the technological capabi lity removes in these activities and to develop indicators to measure the extent to which such technology capabilities have developed. 2. 1 HistoryAlthough telecommunication has a history of more(prenominal) than 150 years in Sri Lanka, the islands mobile communication history extends to less than 25 years. Mobile phone technology for the first time evolved in 1946 after the Second World War. The first Mobile net income was established in North America. After 42 years, mobile technology was introduced to Sri Lanka. The first private mobile operator to enter the market in 1989 was Celltel Lanka confine, which was later known as Tigo. In 2009 Tigo was acquired by Etisalat Middle East telecom giant. The first mobile operator based its operate on the E?TACS technology which offered basic voice services to Sri Lankan subscribers. Between 1989 to 1994 the Government took measures to introduce competitive cubicleular services by granting license to three mobile operators OTC Austral ia (Pvt. ) Ltd, presently known as Mobitel (Pvt) Ltd, MTN Networks (Pvt. ) Limited, commonly known as duologue GSM, and Lanka Cellular Services (Pvt. ) Limited currently known as Hutch. In 2009, the Government introduced more competition to the market by granting license to a fifth mobile operator, Bharathi Airtel which is an Indian telecommunication giant.From 2004 to 2010 Mobile communication industry in Sri Lanka had an annual growth of around 35? 40%. 2. 2 Assessing Technology Level World Technologies in Telecommunication is shown in Table 2. 1. It can be seen in the world still there are internet operating mobile technologies of 1st generation, 2nd Page 4 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka generation and 3rd generation. By looking at the subscriber percentages belong to the networks it can be concluded that 1st generation technology networks will not last much longer as already it is 0. 01 percent of world subscriber base.Technology GSM CDMA2000 1x WCDMA CDMA2000 1x E V? DO Generation 2G/2. 5G 2. 5G 3G 3G Subscribers portion (%) (millions) 3700 80. 42 455 7. 7 240 6. 32 112 2. 8 WCDMA/HSPA 3. 5G 57 1. 52 iDEN 2G 28 0. 74 CDMAONE 2G 6. 95 0. 18 PDC 2G 6 0. 18 CDMA2000 1x EV? DO? Rev A 3. 5G 3. 2 0. 08 TDMA 2G 2. 19 0. 06 Analog 1G 0. 3 0. 01 Table 2. 1 World Telecommunication Technologies Source http//www. telecomindiaonline. com/global? telecom? market? regional? and technology? distribution? at? telecom? india? daily. html GSM is the prevailing technology used all round the glow.It has been introduced in 1992 as a 2nd generation technology but by 2010 its fire with development of GPRS and EDGE technologies. As still GSM technology has more than 80% of world subscriber base and GSM is enhancing with support technologies it is expected to last more years. 3G/3. 5G (WCDMA/HSPA) are most modern commercially available technologies. Its seen that these technologies are capturing the market rapidly. consort to related surveys, more than 96% of WCDM A networks have deployed HSPA, with the majority (over 52%) supporting a peak downlink information capability of 7. Mbps or high. With 22% of HSPA network operators committed to HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). Page 5 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 2. 3 Bench Marking Technologies used by Sri Lankan Mobile Operators and the world technologies are mentioned in the following Table 2. 2. According to the table Dialog and Mobitel have latest technologies comparing to other operators. When comparing with the World status Sri Lankan Operators are using nation of art technology. Sri Lankan Operator Airtel Dialog Etisalat Hutch MobitelTechnologies used GSM/GPRS/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA GSM/GPRS/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA/HSPA+ GSM/GPRS/EDGE GSM/GPRS/EDGE GSM/GPRS/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA/HSPA+ World Status GSM/GPRS/EDGE are 2G/2. 5G everyday technologies in world WCDMA/HSPA are growing 3G/3. 5G technologies HSPA+ is commercially available now LTE is emerging as a 4G technology in the world Table 2. 2 Technology C omparison of Sri Lankan Mobile Operators Sri Lanka is the first country introduced GSM, EDGE, WCDMA (3G) and HSPA (3. 5G) technologies. too Sri Lanka is the first country which demonstrated HSPA+ in South Asia. Page 6Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 3 Technology Problems Recent years were belike the most challenging for the mobile communication industry in its history. stinting and industry turbulence heightened and industry leaders were forced to absorb the shocks in telling proportions while weaker operators were rendered vulnerable. The mobile communication industry deserves commendation for living trying economic, industry and regulatory challenges and for riding the tide. However, the cumulative effect was an good mobile communication industry reporting operating losses.Following are some performance data of Mobile Operators in year 2009. Dialog assembly reported negative NPAT of 1159 mill. Without recurring comprises. In operation Etisalat reported a loss of app roximately 1600 mill. Hutch turn over was decreased by 61. 9% Mobitel reported a net loss of Rs. 395 mill. As margins learn narrower and narrower operators are needful to find new opportunities in sound out to enhance revenue. nevertheless some(prenominal)(prenominal) technological problems are there as barriers for growing Mobile Communication Industry. 3. 1 Capacity Limitations In Mobile communication data traffic demand is rapidly increasing.Major bottle neck in providing high(prenominal) data rates is limitations in transmission networks. Currently Mobile operators have not island wide optical roughage networks in order to provide higher capacities. Also to provide higher aptitude at low cost, traditional TDM based access networks are a barrier. So IP based networks need to be deployed. For this huge investments are needed but current financial status of all mobile operators is not healthy generous for that. Currently it is not manageable to provide higher data rates when users move from UMTS (3G) reportage area to GSM/EDGE coverage area.Page 7 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka Currently the come in of users can be issueed by one cell has become a issue in mobile industry, because if there are more than possible no of users in the same cell, Users experience the congestion situation and as a result this cell need to be further brake in to two cells or covered by an umbrella cell to cater the capacity. When doing so diverse frequencies need to be assigned to the different cells and this will increase the interference to the users and quality would be dropped. 3. 2 null IssuesIn agrestic villages in Sri Lanka, electricity is either not available or is available only in limited quantities. As a result, even if battery fend forup is provided for the Base Stations (BTS), the batteries do not choose fully charged. Further, due to frequent interruptions in the world-beater supply, the life of these batteries gets shortened, which in turn increases the operational cost to run services in rural areas. Unavailability of reliable originator in semi? urban, rural and out-of-door areas increases operational costs further because sufficient backup systems have to be maintained.Therefore sustainable green heftiness sources are essential to have need in future. But still in Sri Lanka Green Technologies like solar energy and malarky power energy are not touristed in Mobile industry. Also be such technologies are not able-bodied of successful operation of base stations. Unavailability of commercial power in rural areas is also affected to mobile operators to expand their coverage. optional power sources are needed to expand coverage in slim time duration with minimal cost. 3. 3 Frequency Spectrum Issues In Sri Lanka Super High Frequency (SHF) Band is highly polluted.SHF band includes frequencies between 3GHz and 30 GHz. In this band more than 10000 Microwave Links are currently operating. Especially in urban areas it is difficult to deploy new back bone microwave cogitate due to interference. This has highly influenced for providing enough data capacity for Mobile Broad Band customers. Page 8 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka TRCSL has not allowed stop to Multi? Point backhauling technologies for telecom operators. With this technology number of microwave links need to be installed can be curbd and operators can easily deploy their back hauling networks. 3. 4 BSC/MSC BoardersIn early mobile systems, outback(a) base station sites were controlled by the MSC or mobile switching center. But with current systems under 2. 5G GSM network BSC Base station restraint controls the outside Base stations and under 3G network RNC Radio Network controller controls the remote node B sites, because of this scenario, It is a must to have several BSC/MSC boarders in the network and when users are moving via this boarders, the probability of drop of the imposes are vey high reducing the network quality in those areas. For example, multitude in the boarder areas always experience call drops and bad call quality etc.Therefore improvement for this is necessary via the advancement of the technologies. It may be high capacity MSCs or BSCs or some other solutions. 3. 5 Tower Loading Microwave links are used as the main means of backhauling in mobile industry in Sri Lanka and these microwave links need to be fixed on pillars with having line of sight. Usually from each one tower connects with more than one tower therefore always several links are need to be installed on a tower top. If its a hub site this number may increase to 10? 15 even more than 50 sometimes. Microwave antenna comes with 0. 6/1. 2/1. /2/2. 5m diameter therefore this is a big equipment. Also it has a larger wind shield area, because of this big size and area and cant operators need high strength large towers to be implemented. If the antenna sizes and cant of this microwave links can be decreased it would be preferably advantageous for the operators. Else new technologies like laser links, IR Links or smaller antenna sized IP links technologies can be developed to be able to guarantee the same level of availability. and then operators would be able to replace heavy microwave and use light equipment types. Page 9Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 4 Proposed Technologies 4. 1 Fiber Based Transmission Fiber based transmission is not a new technology in the industry. In Sri Lanka SLT and Dialog have their own fiber based networks. Fiber based transmission can cater quite high capacity data transmission. It can be used to implement either TDM/SDH based network or Packet/IP based network. Although SLT has a island wide fiber network, Dialog fiber network is still not widely spread. In fiber based solutions fiber cables are drawn from midpoint network sites to the remote Node? B/BTS sites.Usually a ring topology is used and it goes via hub sites, from hub sites fibers are drawn to remote sites. Figure 4. 1 Typical Fiber Based Mobile Network The problems with Fiber based transmission is the high initial capital investment cost and the time taken for the implementation. Most of the operators are not capable of affording such investment for their own fiber based infrastructure. Page 10 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka If a fiber network can be used for providing transmission for base stations, increasing data traffic demand can be easily fulfilled.Another option is to need fiber networks capacity from already deployed SLT or Dialog network. But leasing cost need to be highly considered. 4. 2 IP RAN Implementation of IP RAN (IP Radio access network) is the key to provide higher capacity. An IP ran with higher capacity to remote sites can constitute higher speeds with currently available HSPA+ like technologies. Figure 4. 2 HSPA Technology Roadmap According to the roadmap shown in Figure 4. 2, with the enhancements of HSPA+, Wimax /ADSL speeds can b e passed or equalized with HSPA in the years to come.The IP radio access networks (IPRAN) consist of end to end (Remote sites to the core network nodes) transmission with IP/Ethernet networks. Easiest way to implementation of such a technology is fiber based IP network where higher capacity and less complexity can be achieved. 4. 3 EDGE Evolution for GSM Current 2G networks are inadequate for providing data speeds of GSM/EDGE networks. EDGE Evolution quadruples threadbare EDGE network speeds, promising downlink data Page 11 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka rates of 1. 2Mbit/s, though the model has headroom for up to 1. 9Mbit/s.Similarly, uplink data rates of 474kbit/s are expected, although the standard specifies 947kbit/s. 3GPP standardized EDGE Evolution in 2007 (3GPP Release 7). 4. 4 Green Technologies Maintenance costs of networks in rural areas are high compared to urban areas, because of several factors such as poor transportation systems, difficulty in supply of s pare parts and non? availability of skilled workforce. Due to omit of reliable power in rural areas, there has been a meaty increase in the usage of diesel for running engine alternators to arrest telecom switching centers, transmission equipment and BTS s up and running.Currently more than 5000 Communication towers are there in Sri Lanka. This increases costs substantially. In spreading the reach of telecommunications in remote areas, renewable energy should be used to power relay towers in remote areas. By replacing diesel generators with solar panels in cell phone towers, tons of ascorbic acid emissions could be prevented from entryway the atmosphere. Global Telecom emission in 2002 and estimated values in 2020 are shown in Figure 4. 3. Figure 4. 3 Global Telecom Emissions 2002 2020 Source The Climate Group and Global e?Sustainability Initiative Page 12 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka Solar is a loot and effective way of harnessing energy. Also, the maintenance cost for the operation of solar equipment is comparatively lower as compared to diesel generators operated BTS towers. Solar generators have no carbon emissions and also help in preserving the environment for sustaining life on earth. It concentrates global warming, as carbon emissions are null in solar devices. The manpower needed for the operation and maintenance for solar equipment do not require extra skill.The telecom majors in world have started operating mobile repeater and relay stations, which harness solar and wind energy with the wind turbines foisted on the telecom towers. The hybrid systems, involving solar photovoltaic systems and wind energy installations for this application assure uninterrupted supply of 2. 8 kilowatts of power daily. A master control installed at the site acts as a voltage stabilizer, while a generator has been kept as a back? up for charging the batteries in case of emergency. Though the diesel generators are the lifelines of telecom towers, the y contribute to significant carbon emissions. discharge green and pushing the use of alternative energy sources like solar, wind and bio? fuel is the need of the minute of arc the government should provide high subsidies to help the telecoms taking this step, quickly and easily. Going solar is the way forward. Therefore as we can see above technologies are the candidate technologies for future enhancement of Mobitel network. According to the study these technologies can solve the main issues that were identified in this chapter. Therefore a system and a roadmap are required for timely implementation of the technologies in the network. 4. 5 LTELTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G technology which is emerging in the world now. When existing technologies are becoming obsolete, investments need to be done on new technologies. It is assumed that 2G will become obsolete in near future. Page 13 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka Figure 4. 4 Envelope Curve of Mobile Technologies Figu re 4. 4 shows the envelope mold of mobile communication technologies. It can be seen the technology is mainly modify focusing the deliverable capacity. See Figure 4. 5. Figure 4. 5 Expected Growth of Mobile Data Industry Mobile broad band services provide new opportunities for Mobile Operators.With LTE customer demands can be satisfied easily. Page 14 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 5 Future Industry of Mobile Communication Current monthly operational cost of Mobile Networks is several folds higher than revenue which is the case in many technology introductions. By introducing green technologies operational cost can be reduced. Therefore a huge advantage can be taken in current price war. With low cost IP based technologies and Point to Multi Point Backhauling technologies can be reduce operation and maintenance cost also.Going for Fiber Networks can help to reduce operational cost by reducing huge TRCSL license charges need to be pay annually for Microwave Links. With those technology improvements turn over can be improved and hence investments can be advance because huge investments are needed in near future as Core Mobile Technologies are evolving day by day. Government need to be given intensives for investments in Mobile Technologies as it can agitate the economy in return. Above mention technologies can reduce the environmental problems raised by Mobile Industry. Some of such issues can be listed as follows.Carbon Emission of more than 5000 Base Stations island wide Radio Frequency Pollution Currently Mobile Industry has influenced in purification also. Wide spread of pornographic contents is a major issue. direct recently all mobile operators have been agreed to implement technological measures to filter out such contents. Therefore by introducing mentioned technologies mobile operator will be able to overcome technological barriers as well as financial issues, marketing issues and environmental uses etc. Although Sri Lankan Mobile tari ffs are the lowest in the region, customers are not satisfied with the service in general.This bad customer images Page 15 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka regarding mobile operators can be eliminated from the heart of the customers by introducing state of art, sustainable and low cost technologies. Page 16 Mobile Communication Industry in Sri Lanka 6 Conclusion Technology plays a vital role in any industry in todays world. Mobile Communication industry is not an exception. Mobile Technologies are evolving very rapidly and customer expectations are also at sky level. In Sri Lanka 5 Mobile Players are operating in the industry and they use most popular and

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Fragment – Changes In Life

Incidents occur in ones breeding daily. intimately of the clock people enjoy talking ab egress what happened today because approximately of the time its usually funny and it isnt really considered any topic serious. virtually happenings in our lives argon very serious and arent as smooth to talk rough with others. Even though this is true it does help the individual feel better to talk almost their problems whether they realize it at frontmost or not. Changes in life like these can change you both physically and mentally for the rest of your life dep terminationing on the severity of the situation.In early August of 96 my life at base of operations became a living nightmare. I dont really know what it was that started this thing between me and my parents but I do remember that they were always doing anything they could to alone annoy me. I doubt this was intentional but at the time it seemed that it was. They would find any excuse to yell or blame me for things that didn t even involve me and they wouldnt listen to anything I had to say at all. They were right and I was wrong, thats the long and the short of it. It got so dark that I hated being home.I would do anything and go anywhere just to desexualise away from my parents even if it meant press release somewhere that I had always hated going before. When I couldnt transmit out of the house I tried my best to stay in my direction and keep the door closed. When they decided that they didnt want me in my dwell where they couldnt fuss at me they came up with this big idea that I was trying to hide something from them. They must boast spent a component of time trying to decide what I was trying to hide because they came up with the save halfway smart thing I had heard from them in almost a month. They had decided that I was smoking.Too bad for them they were wrong. Until their accusation, I hadnt touched a cigarette but after that I did. I spent countless hours thinking about the things tha t were going on with my life. For almost a whole month I thought about ending my life and my problems, I thought about how I could make my life by acquire away from the house legally, and I wondered what their argument for doing this to me was. I finally decided that the smart thing to do would be just do something to get away from them legally but my bordering question was how then I got a tip as I was scanning through the newspaper one evening.I was going to get a job and that would keep me away from home. I applied to the basic ad I saw in the paper and strangely enough, I actually got a call from Ramada Inn in less than 3 days after applying. I went to 2 interviews and apparently passed with flying color in because I got the job about a week later. After on the job(p) there for about 2 or three weeks the things happening at home had came to and end but I had finally gotten my first savoring of real life with my job and it wasnt too sweet. To tell the faithfulness it was terrible.I found out the real reason they hired me. It wasnt because I was so qualified or whatever, it was because the place couldnt get anyone to work. The reason for that was the boss was a real pain in the rear. So now, I didnt have to worry about problems at home I now had to worry about problems at work but at least I was getting paid for putting up with their crap. I guess thats the price you have to pay and for me getting a job and getting rid of the problems at home end up saving my life.In my lifetime I have seen a lot of weird things and have had lots of experiences that have changed my life in one way or another and Im current that there are going to be lots more of them to get on but these that really stand out in my mind are mainly because they happened quite recently. In my mind, I know that I am lucky that these happenings did only affect me mentally and didnt go as far as to affect me physically because had they succeeded, I in all likelihood wouldnt be here tod ay. I know now that it would have only been a long verge solution to a short term problem but at the time it seemed like suicide was going to be my only way out.I began getting very prevent with the events going on in my life and just wanted to end them all. Looking back on what I thought at the time, I am glad now that I just kept relation myself subconsciously things would get better with time. The thing is, the resolution of my problems took longer than I wanted them to. Id say that if these problems both with my family life and my so called work life had continued much longer, I would have disregarded anything my friends had told me and that I had told myself about things getting better and would have cease my life as you and I know it.You know, the more I think about it in writing this, the more I believe that I believably wouldnt have ended it totally because I seem to have really bad luck. You may ask what this has to do with anything but I figure that if I had tried to kill myself, I would have ended up being found and taken to a doctor and they were sufficient to save my life but I would have ended up being a vegetable but knowing some people, they probably think Im a vegetable already.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Criticisms in “In the Penal Colony” Essay

The antediluvian mechanism and ancient legal g everywherenance in Kafkas In the punishable Colony describes the current state of humanity in the colonial era.  through the use, along with the circumstances surrounding the mechanism, Kafka portrays slavery and colonialism in the world and the consequences of impuissance to abolish such slipway.The people of the habituation be represented by the Soldier, the ships officer, the adventurer, the Condemned man, and the Commandant.  By fully grown them these names, Kafka has essentially dehumanized them oftentimes like those who get down been condemned to working in punishable colonies they only invite functions, not names.  The sharp bureaucratic ways of the colony notify be seen through the punishments handed out as told by the military officer who ismuch more interested in the technicalities of the act than the niceties of legal procedure. The actual implementation is to be carried out by a complex apparat us designed by the author Commandant of the penal colony and maintained by the Officer. The elevator car tortures the condemned man in a process that brutally mimics and transforms the sexual act. The condemned man is scaldped naked onto any(prenominal)thing akin to a bed and the top part of the apparatus, a set of knife-like needles, automatically descends, lancinating his body and excreting a fluid that inscribes the sentence upon his flesh. For the first vi hours of the writing process, the condemned man suffers only pain (149) yet as the needles force his internal organs more deeply, he achieves a form of judgment that culminates in death. (Kohn 5)The way in which the punishment is filtered through the legal system of the penal colony is also rather questionable.  The Officer says, I have been appointed judge in this penal colony(145) and uses his principle of misdeed is never to be doubted.  Other courts cannot follow that principle, for they consist of several opinions and have higher courts to scrutinize them.  That is not the case here, or at least, it was not the case in the former Commandants time.(145)to rule over his judgments.  For the condemned man, he has no chance to defend himself and prove his innocence by virtue of the system in place.  They be always going to be found guilty for the sake of universe guilty so they can have an execution take place and earn some cordial of grotesque excitement where, hundreds of spectatorsall of them standing on tiptoe(153) could exonerate witness to them.Aside from the archaic methods of criminal procedures, Kafka also presents the reliance on antiquated technology through this work in the presentation of execution machine to portray the costs associated with running a penal colony for slave labor during his time.  We first get a glimpse of the harsh realities of the machine and the cost to upkeep it when the soldier breaks the wrist reprimand and the Officer says, This is a very complex machine, it cant be helped that things are breaking or giving way here and in that location but one must not thereby allow oneself to be turn in ones general judgment(151).  He continues reflectionthe resources for maintaining the machine are now very much reduced.  Under the former Commandant I had free access to a sum of gold set aside entirely for this purpose.  There was a store, too, in which throw in the towel parts were kept for repairs of all kinds. (151)Now he has taken efflorescence of the machine money himself, and if I send for a new strap they ask for the broken old strap as evidence, and the new strap takes ten days to appear and then is of shoddy material and not much good. (151)There was an entire store dedicated solely to maintaining the machine it much like penal colonies were such a hindrance on the economies of the nations that controlled and maintained them.As the story progresses, we can see how the ways of the penal colony are being phased out when we hear the Officer circulate the Explorertheres no time to lose, an attack of some kind is impending on my function as judge conferences are already being held in the Commandants office from which I am excluded even your coming here today seems to me a significant move they are cowards and use you as a screen, you, a stranger.(153)The Officer views the Explorer with a great deal of clout believing he can restore the penal colony to the greatness that it once enjoyed.  However, the Explorer knows the harsh realities of the colony and refuses to play along with Officer to help him bring the colony back to its previous state.  Instead we see the Explorer as, a kind of outsider,(157) a change in attitudes throughout the world looking at in on the colony.  The Officer finally realizes that the Explorer is not there to help him restore what once was, and he submits himself to his own machine.  As the machine is inscribing be just into his body , it fails due to its complex nature and failing state, much like the failing state of the colony, and kills him.            Through close readings of In the penal Colony, we gain an insight as to what Kafka was trying to accomplish with this work.  His nation, Germany, as swell up as many others in the world at the time had undertaken colonialism and establishing penal colonies to better their nations.  However, Kafka illustrates the failing nature of these establishments through their rudimentary justice systems and financial reliance on the host nations economies.  Instead of bettering society through what was being provided by the slave labor, the social order of the world was being torn apart keeping them afloat.Works CitedKohn, Margaret. Kafkas Critique of Colonialism. Theory & group A Event. 8.3 (2005) 5. Print.

Reflection of Clinical Observation Experience Essay

I am a nursing student from Australian Catholic University. This role tend is about the vital signs. Now, I am going to write a reflective write about the video of my role play of TPR which is a part of assignment and done by me and my other two friends.Firstly, in my video when I play a agree role, jump of each(prenominal) I asked about the longanimouss condition such as how are you today. I likewise make the eye contact tour taking to long-suffering. But this is my first time to take vital signs. I found more challenging than my forecasts while I channelize the longanimous. communicative and nonverbal communication is a part of communication between patient and nurse. (Hamilton, 2007). But I forget to introduce myself to the patient. I realise that is my first faulting to communicate with patient.Secondly, I washed my egest properly forrader taking the patient vital signs. Alcohol based hand check is simply most useful intervention in controlling transmission (Aus tralian commission on safety and part in healthcare, 2009). When I go near to the patient I prepare each and every liaison what nurses needed while taking vital signs. Such as patients arranging file, pen and instrument for taking vital signs. Furthermore, in the beginning I pelf to check the patient I did make sure the she is the even out patient or not which is written in her name, date of birth, MRN number and the doctor name in her hand band. I pass water always anticipate that it is a simple process but I found that my expectation were far from my contract.Thirdly, I pay off to take the vital signs but before that I asked the permission from the patient. Vital signs refer to the measurement of a patients temperature, pulse respiration and affinity pressure. Vital signs commonly acknowledge temperature, birth pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate which are use to access the most essential body function (Stomski, 2009). Firstly, I start from to take the patients t emperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate .and blood pressure and records in the patients file. However, while taking the blood pressure I rent to support patients hand by pillow or hand which I forgot at that moment. later that mistake I determined I never do that mistake in my profession.Finally, when I finished taking the vital signs I advise to the patient thank you for your Participation. After finished my role play I realise participation word is not appropriate. Instead of that I have to say thank you for your cooperation. I feel this is the best way to communicate between nurse and patient. I have always believed that the elderly do very little with their time. I found a positive grammatical construction about the elderly even though they are old, the patients were creatively quick by own choice which makes them busy and so they have glad existence. In the low care unit people were doing recreational naturalize such as painting and stick picture and cartoon on the pape r.I found health professionals were polite and friendly with the patients. I also found patience in the staff and the patient when they are communication with each other. The health professionals encourage patients to speak and genuinely interested in clients word and encourage them to converse. This interaction impressed me a lot and I learned a new lesson how to motivate people. I am glad I went on this field visit because it present to me many positive qualities most importantly, the empathy that I will need to have in order to be a skilled and caring nurse.. Moreover, right patient, right place and right way of taking the vital signs is also part of nursing skills. Also comfortable between patient and nurse is very important.ReferenceAustralian commission on safety and quality in healthcare. (2009). National Hand aaaaaaHygiene Program Aims To Halve Hospital superbug Infections. Retrieve from aaaaa http//, S.J., Martin, D.J. (2007). Clinical Development A cloth for effective aaaaaacommunication skills. Nursing Times. Retrieved from aaaaaahttp//,N (2009). Vital Signs. The Joanna Briggs Institute 25(3),1-5.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Freud paper

Freud and psychoanalysis has changed the way the world depends for some years. His ideas chip in been accepted by the public as more of a second belief. Freudian psychiatry has also impacted the way we think about immortal and the Bible. In his analysis, Freud seemed to eliminate perfection, reflection that He was created by us. He also said that we dont need to answer to a high power in our lives. If we go by this rule, we are basically orbit our goals to societys standards we are going to be accepting what society thinks is right and rang, non what divinity fudge thinks of as right and wrong.You are simply going by matter of opinion and not what is truly correct. Freudian psychiatry challenges biblical teaching by saying that we do not need deity to answer to or to even have in our lives. Freud is essentially saying we dont need a deity to survive in societys eyes e realthing house be explained either materially or scientifically. In a way, having no God in our lives is an excuse to not pay any mind to Gods teachings. If this is true, can we commit rimes and not have to worry about the consequences?It seems that according to Freud, we allow only have the trouble of answering to society we shouldnt even have to worry about the shame of telling God. But as Christians, we should slaver other theories through the Bible to confirm its solidity in God and His teachings. So is Freudian psychoanalysis correct? I am not going to judge it and tell you if it is right or wrong I will merely state my opinion on it. Frauds theory is very similar of that of Darnings theory of SocialDarwinism survival of the fittest. In a sense, if we take God out of the picture, we will only be competing for top spot in society. There will be no seat next to God in Heaven. There will be, according to Freud, no eternal life. The virtually of our worries would be answering to societys judgment upon us. Freudians theory clashes with the Bible in some aspects we should still sif t outside information through the Bible to spawn the answer that is correct, not in our eyes, but Gods eyes.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Mental health programs Essay

Community wellness programs based in performes throw off been highly successful, although occasionally conf use and stressful for pastors to administer. However, it is not only(prenominal) tangible health programs which have thrived moral health and chemical dependency programs ar an important supplement to church ministry and residential ara service. Thompson and McRae argue that the total darkness church itself offers a positive therapeutic effect to its flexure, even without a clod intellectual health ministry in place.They discuss the historical basis for the B lose churchs creation of union the creation of the we group alternatively than the individual I and the need for belonging with a group, rather than to a group (41). They recite Embedded within the individual were past experiences, traditions, values, and norms for emotions, cognitions, and behaviors contributing(prenominal) to relatedness and interpersonalness that reflected a collective sense of belon ging with rather than to, caring, similar others (Thompson & amp McRae, 41). The Black church, in Thompson and McRaes view, has created a bridge for the gap amidst the historic slave experience and the modern Black experience which helps take over the amiable transition between worlds, and created a framework for dealing with hostility. They state The Black church nurtures the survival of its members through providing a supportive, caring surroundings to facilitate an ever-widening upward spiral of positive cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes for process and change (Thompson & McRae, 46). While the mere fact of church sept has a positive effect on its members, Black church fight in ceremonial moral health ministry programs has a significant preserve on its members as well. Blank discussed the importance of mental health premeditation within the church setting. They state that at that place be four areas of community disturbance considered most effective in the church setting. These are basal trouble delivery, mental health, health promotion and disease promotion and health policy.Their review of studies underscored the importance of natural helpers (friends and extended family), lay helpers and most curiously church attractors in the delivery of mental health care through an in semi-formal care frame. Blank discussed the state of mental health care in the campestral South in the 1970s the universe of discourse was discovered by researchers studying psychiatrical utilization and morbidity in the area to be underserved, despite the general view that rural life-time was superior to urban.The problems contributing to first gear psychiatric utilization are intricate problems with service delivery, low quality of care (especially among minority patients) and lack of providers are entangled with neighborly stigma surrounding psychiatric care, economic and social factors, geographic distance from providers, poverty, race and class issues to create a morass of issues a patient must slog through to acquire psychiatric care.Blank notes that at the time of the study, most counties lacked a single doctoral-level mental health professional only 3% of licensed psychiatrists practice in the rural South, a number which has not changed significantly since the 1970s. In supplement to the socioeconomic issues with receiving psychiatric care in the rural South, there are further problems relating to doctor-patient relations.Some theorists state that exsanguine mental health care providers cannot provide optimal care to Black patients because of their lack of knowledge and sense of Black history and culture, as well as a lack of understanding of the difficulty of being Black in a lily-white world furthermore Black patients are less likely to trustfulness white care providers due to racial tensions and differences in worldview (Blank , 1668). Instead, Black patients are considered to have a preference for Black care providers.While just about studies have shown that Black patients do prefer Black care providers, declared reasons for this preference are a perception of greater professional competence and attitude, as well as racial and cultural compatibility (Blank , 1668). Blank stress the importance of sensitivity and cultural competence it can lead to a greater understanding of non-normative minority behavior as well as an subjoin in trust levels between provider and patient which increase the possibility of a successful outcome.Blank discusses the cultural responsiveness hypothesis, which states that the durability of psychotherapy is directly related to the therapists ability to authorize an understanding of the patients cultural background. Lack of this cultural responsiveness might account for some of the racial divide in diagnosis, treatment and premature termination of treatment observed between Black and white psychiatric patients (Blank, 1669).Blank hypothesized that rural chur ches provide fewer social and mental health ope assess than urban churches, and that they have fewer link with the formal care arranging furthermore, because of the importance of the church in the Black community and the historic exclusion of Black from formal care bodys (schools, mental health services, etc), Black churches would provide more social and mental health services than white churches, but with fewer think to the formal care arranging (1669).Blank tested their theory using a phone look back of Black and white church leaders in twain rural and urban areas in the South (defined in their study as Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missisippi, northern Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia (Blank, 1670)). A total of 2,867 churches were targeted, with a total of 269 completed interviews, or an overall participation rate of just under 10% (Blank, 1670). countryfied Black churches, the targeted demographic, were actually leas t likely to participate in the study, with only a one in fourteen survey completion rate the researchers cited lack of full-time staff creating difficulties reaching church leaders and a high rate of church leader refusal as factors in this low completion rate (Blank, 1670).The researchers discussed topics such as church demographics, including size and racial composition of the congregation, number of services held and attendance at the services, the church work out and founding date problems the churchs congregants faced that the church leader considered to be most important specific questions about mental health services provided by the church or church leader, including such issues as depression, paranoia, nervous breakdown, dementia and Alzheimers disease and attempted suicideWhat emblem of support services were offered formally by the church to deal with these types of issues and what links to the formal care arrangement, including hospitals, care providers and support serv ices like Alcoholics unidentified existed, and if links existed to what level church leaders provided referrals to the formal care system (Blank, 1669).The researchers then constructed four different scales on which to rank the churches Problems, which quantified the degree to which responding churches dealt with mental health problems over the previous two years Programs for Adults, which quantified the number of mental health programs offered by the church, including those dealing with alcohol and substance abuse, marital counseling, invoke education and counseling, domestic violence and sexual assaultPrograms for Children, which quantified programs specifically aimed at support for children, including individual and family support services and finally Programs for Teenagers, which quantified programs specifically aimed at support for teens. Referrals, both in and out, were also quantified (Blank, 1670). Statistical analysis using factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was perfo rmed to determine the correlation between the variable factors.The researchers found some surprising differences in funding when adjusted for congregation size, rural white churches had substantially larger budgets than rural Black churches, and urban Black churches also had significantly larger budgets than the rural Black churches (Blank, 1670). However, both urban and rural Black churches were shown to offer significantly higher amount of mental health programs overall than their white counterparts. There were no statistically significant variables in the study of links between referrals, but the modal auxiliary verb response among churches overall was 0, indicating that all churches tend to lack links with the formal care system (Blank, 1671).Blank extrapolate concerning the possible reasons for lack of links between the formal care system and the informal care system provided by churches. They note that one of the difficulties may be historical in nature because churches are often divided among racial and ethnic lines, there may be barriers to connection between the formal care system and churches precipitated by racial and ethnic tensions.Additionally, because churches have played a consumption as a political entity in the past, there may be lingering social tensions between churches and formal care systems which prevent these roles. (Blank, 1671). other barrier may be the different paradigms of the formal care system and the church regarding the nature, causes and treatment of mental health problems.