Saturday, August 24, 2019
Principles of Marketing - Essay Example The main reason behind market segmentation is to help a company understand the needs of a particular segment (Beane & Ennis, 1997, p. 31). Mass marketing mainly assumes that all customers have the same interests and consumption behaviour. Segmenting the market can also serve in identifying smaller groups of consumers who make their own subsets an aspect that improve the overall efficiency of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing efforts (Dibb, Simpkin, Pride & Ferrell, 2001). Market segmentation enables the marketer to compare different marketing opportunities of different marketing segments through studying consumer needs and potential, their level of satisfaction etc. This helps the company in coming up with appropriate strategies to satisfy the needs of these different segments. There are different forms of segmentation. These include geographical segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation and behavioural segmentation. Geographical segmentation This is segmenting the market based on the location of the customers. Demand of goods can vary according to geographic location of the customers. Geographical segmentation therefore, focuses on prospective marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ location and different attributes that are associated with each location. The marketer can therefore, focus on either a single location or many depending on the varying requirements of each region and the cost of serving these locations. Demographic segmentation This is division of the market according to demographic variables such as age, gender, individual occupation, education or even family size. The marketer uses these variables in making decisions and identifying the target market. In an example, a company may decide to segment the market according to age of the people. As a result, it can develop different products that meet different requirements of customers that belong to various age groups (Hunt and Arnett, 2004, p.23). Psychographic and behavioural segmentation Psychograp hic segmentation divides the market into different segments which have similar lifestyles. Lifestyle is an individual mode of living and mainly describes how a person conducts his/her daily activities. On the other hand, behavioural segmentation divides the market according to behavioural characteristics of the customers. Different customers have different behaviours which are used by a marketer to market the produce (Kotler & Armstrong, 2011). Market targeting Marketing targeting is a process of identifying different groups of consumers that exist in a market who are likely to purchase a certain good or service. Target marketing makes it easier to price, promote and distribute the product or service at a cost that is effective. When targeting the market, a marketer should ensure that the firm has adequate resources to meet the requirement of the target market. Targeting plays an important role of reducing market ambiguity as marketers are able to have an in-depth knowledge concerni ng the target consumers. There are different forms of targeting. One of the methods is referred to as broad or undifferentiated targeting. The concept that underlies this method is that a product or service has a broad appeal to all customers irrespective of their age, gender and location. Second method is referred to as selective or differentiated method. With this
Friday, August 23, 2019
Manac Plc. Models and concepts affecting the pricing decisions taken by organizations, critically reflecting upon their usefulness - Essay Example The pricing policy of a firm is affected by a number of factors which contains the variable and fixed costs of the firm and the ecological factors which contains competitor analysis and legal analysis. Pricing models can be utilized to explain, forecast or explain pricing circumstances, or to prescribe pricing decisions. Irrespective of their planned use, however, models are basically abstractions of actuality. Even though they are less difficult than the real world, models should have relevant possessions of the realism they are calculated to represent. A number of more particular criteria served as the foundation for evaluating the pricing models are reviewed. Two criteria are valid to the assumptions on which the form is based. Such assumptions must be stated openly so that the user is cognizant of their existence and so able to assess their relevance and importance. Secondly, the assumptions must be realistic. Ã¢â¬Å"The pricing decision is a critical one for most marketers, yet the amount of attention given to this key area is often much less than is given to other marketing decisions. One reason for the lack of attention is that many believe price setting is a mechanical process requiring the marketer to utilize financial tools, such as spreadsheets, to build their case for setting price levelsÃ¢â¬ (Pricing Decisions 1998). ... However, pricing decisions have vital consequences for the marketing organization and the concentration given by the dealer to pricing is just as significant as the concentration given to extra identifiable marketing actions. Some significant causes affect pricing include: Most Flexible Marketing Mix Variable: For dealers, price is the large amount variable of all marketing choices. Unlike distribution and product decisions, which can take years or months to change or several forms of promotion which may be time consuming to change, price can be changed very quickly. The elasticity of pricing choices is chiefly significant in times when the dealer seeks to rapidly stimulate demand or respond to contestant value actions. For instance, a marketer can get on a field salespersonÃ¢â¬â¢s request to lesser cost for a possible vision throughout a phone discussion. Similarly, a dealer in charge of online processes can raise costs on hot selling products with the click of a few website butto ns. Setting the Right Price: Pricing decisions made quickly without adequate research, analysis and planned evaluation can lead a losing income to the marketing organization. Prices set also may signify that the company is missing out on extra profits that could be earned if the target market is eager to spend extra to obtain the product. Furthermore, efforts to raise an originally low priced product to a higher cost can be met by consumer resistance as they can feel that the dealer is effecting to take benefit of their consumers. Setting of high prices can also impact on income as it prevents interested consumers from purchasing the manufactured goods. For setting the right price, substantial market knowledge is important and mostly, with new products testing of different
Benefits of transformational leadership vs other leadership models - Essay Example This has made it easier for us to identify which method to adopt in a particular situation or nature of business/profession. Within various leadership theories, one widely used leadership model is Ã¢â¬Å"transformational leadership theoryÃ¢â¬ . This paper will discuss the importance of transformation leadership style and how it is better from other leadership models. Transformational Leadership Successful leadership is not only about limited set of traits and actions; itÃ¢â¬â¢s about having wide variety of skills, ideas, and approaches to attain a defined goal, and a transformational leader has it all. Such leaders have the following characteristics: Honesty Ability to set understandable and achievable goals Ability to effectively communicate vision Supportive Helps followers fulfill their needs Inspiring personality In simply words, transformational leadership is all about gaining your followerÃ¢â¬â¢s trust. This leads to motivation in the team which in turn results in positiv e outcomes. Transformational leader through charismatic methods attract his team members towards him. Transformational leader in addition to having a charismatic, smart and confident personality also realizes the needs of his team members. He clearly understands that in an organization every individual have certain needs which are important to be fulfilled in order for the employers to perform efficiently. James Burns further stated that a true leader is one who not only brings change within the organization and achieve his set goals but also bring positive change in people involved in the project. A leader is called a transformational leader because he has the ability to transform his followers by using the following ways: Effectively communicating the value and importance of the project Making his team members focus on project goal instead of their personal interest Comparison of Transformational Leadership model with other Leadership models The charismatic leaders are known to sp read out enthusiasm, positive energy and passion among their team members or followers. Such type of leaders possesses the ability to attract others towards them with their charisma. Their outstanding personality forces their followers to trust them blindly and have complete faith in them. Therefore, loosing such kind of individuals might lead to confusion within the organization as they make workers believe in their own vision and make them work accordingly. Charismatic leaders tend to be self-confident and principled as carrying out difficult mission requires such characteristics. Due to these characteristics of a charismatic leader, his team members or followers might feel discomfort and uneasiness while working with them. (Judge Bono, 2000) Another author further describes a charismatic leader as an attractive and emotional individual who has the ability to win the emotions of his fellow workers and fulfill their requirements and needs. In order to attract his follower, they nee d to formulate an attractive and smart vision and goals and take steps to achieve these goals. (Khatri, 2005) Charismatic leaders have the talent to easily communicate their thoughts, goals and vision which further strengthens their followers believes in them. This ability in them
Thursday, August 22, 2019
James Dickey Essay James Dickey (1923 1997) is one of the outstanding modern American poets. His criticism provides a scope of ideas on what humanity has gained throughout the twentieth century. His viewpoint is likely to amaze an observer by constant critical notes on what is universally called Ã¢â¬Å"amenities of life.Ã¢â¬ Thus, the figure of James Dickey cannot be underestimated in terms of his poetical style and criticism of perpetually developing progressive life of the mankind during the twentieth century. His inclinations to make people understand the charms of primitivism and animalism were straightforward. He could put his reasoning over the entire life through the eyes of animals and nature. Thus, the environmental problem of humanity and morality worried him much. It is reflected in his poetry by making emphasis on the significance of return to the nature in order to think like a Ã¢â¬Å"child of nature.Ã¢â¬ DickeyÃ¢â¬â¢s main motivation for claiming the importance of return to primitivism was not spontaneous. He had got through participation in World War II and Korean War (Thesing and Wrede 151). In this respect the poet was highly depressed by losing his older brother. In fact, it turned into a cycle of poems on the main themes of family, survival, spiritual rebirth, love, war and some other (Vaughan 115). With multiple poems included in the compilation The Whole Motion, Dickey described war as the source for cruelty and disfigured estimation of humanity at large (Thesing and Wrede 153). In this very collection one embraces the evolution of Dickey as a poet. The author followed a specific for Modernism feature of the stream-of-consciousness technique. He introduced it in personal evaluation of human civilization, as a self-destructing unity of people. Moreover, Dickey was trying to make a set of interrelated topics interwoven in terms of their collision and approach toward the concept of a Ã¢â¬Å"natural man.Ã¢â¬ Attacking the problem of civilization, James Dickey is likely to blame worldÃ¢â¬â¢s progress on the example of his best-known poem The Firebombing: The enemy-colored skin of families Determines to hold its color In sleep, as my hand turns whiter Than ever, clutches the toggle Ã¢â¬â The ship shakes bucks Fire hangs not yet fire In the air above Beppu For I am fulfilling An Ã¢â¬Ëanti-moraleÃ¢â¬â¢ raid upon it (Kendall 511). Based on this single excerpt from the poem, Dickey brings the main problem of the mankind to notice. It is grounded on misunderstanding of where the edge between morality and violence takes place. The author perceives an enormous and ominous power of violence supported by humanity. He understands personal helplessness. Thus, he had no choice but to reflect his rumination in the form of a holistic criticism of the civilization and its consequences. Hence, Dickey is constantly critiquing civilization, and it feels like he never repeated the same theme colored by a banal estimation. It is also included into The Sheep Child. His poetic language was easy to comprehend. Thus, the readers and followers can easily take Dickey as he is. As a matter of fact, born in Atlanta, Georgia, Dickey was loosely related to the concept of nature as he lived, studied, and worked for some period of time in the south of the USA (OBriant 158). His Ã¢â¬Å"southernÃ¢â¬ origin and what he once experienced in person gave him motivation for teaching the audience being glowering toward what the civilized life had fallen into (James Dickey 1). In this respect the primitivism and the concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"natural manÃ¢â¬ are the paramount alternatives represented in his poetry.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Induction of Beta Galactosidase in E.Coli | Lab Report Aim: To study the effects of IPTG, lactose, glucose, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and streptomycin induction on the units of beta-galactosidase of E.coli Introduction In 1961, a special group of units that able to control its beginning and ending of transcription activities by undergoing induction process was discovered by Jacob and Monod. This special enzyme is known as Lac operon which is group of genes that arranged in sequences of promoter region, operated region and structural genes that found in the Escherichia Coli. Promoter region is the site where the RNA polymerases binds to and initiate the transcription process while the operated region in the operon is the site where the regulatory protein such as inducer and repressor bind to and stimulate the genes to turning on or off the transcription process. Lac operon made up of three specific lac genes; there are lac Z, lac Y and lac A and they can be found in the structural genes of the operon. At the end of the transcription process, Lac Z gene can be encoded into ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase which is an enzyme that used to hydrolyze lactose molecules into allolactose molecules fist then further into glucose and galactose which are the monosaccharide molecules (Kathryn Grace Patterson, 2009). Allolactose is the intermediate product when ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase used to catalyses the reaction of converting lactose to glucose and galactose. According to Miiller-Hill, Rickenberg Wallenfels, allolactose is a natural and effective inducer to trigger transcription process to occur (1964). lacY encodes into ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactoside permease which playing the role in transporting lactose molecules into the cell while lacA is converted into ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactoside transacetylase through transcription process which is an enzyme that involved in adding an ac etyl group (CH3) from acetyl coenzyme A to the 6 position of the ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase (Xing Guo, Wang, Laurence R. OlsenSteven L. Roderick, 2002). As the inducer such as allolactose (natural inducer) or IPTG, Isopropyl ÃÅ½Ã ²-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside which is an artificial inducer binds to the operated region and deactivated the repressor protein. Hence, repressor protein generated by the lac I gene cannot binds to the operated region which stimulates the RNA polymerases to bind to the promoter region and start the transcription process which is positive control mechanism. On the other hand, negative control mechanism occurs when active repressor protein binds to the o-site (operated region), it blocks the RNA polymerases binds to the p-site (promoter region) and thus no transcription can take place. IPTG acts as the inducer due to its structure is similar to the allolactose. o-nitrophenol ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase Isopropylthiogalactosidase (IPTG) ortho-Nitrophenyl-ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidaseÃ which known as ONPG is used to measure the ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase enzymatic activities in this experiment which show a yellow colour when ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidaseÃ presence. ONPG has a similar structure as lactose which also catalyze by the beta-galactosidase enzyme to form galactose + O-nitrophenol whereas the O-niotrophenol responsible to the colour changes. When the intensity of yellow colour increases, the rate of enzymatic activity also increases. Hans Noll and Joseph Orlando also mentioned that o-nitrophenol-beta-galactosidase is hydrolyses by ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase enzyme but not for IPTG molecules (Hans Noll Joseph Orlando, 1960). Hypothesis: a) IPTG activates beta-galactosidase enzyme at most effective effects. b) The rate of beta-galactosidase enzymatic activities depend on the time of induction. Materials and Methods: Part A: Time course of induction of ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase by IPTG Induction of the ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase enzyme. Two different sets of culture condition were investigated. One set in the condition with IPTG (5mM) and another set in the condition of adding water as the control experiment. 15 labeled microfuge tubes which contain 100 Ã µl of the CTAB solution which used to kills the E. coli cells and lyses the cells to release the contents including ÃÅ½Ã ² -galactosidase were prepared and placed in the ice bath. 2.5ml of actively growing Escherichia Coli K12 was transferred into two separate 50ml conical flasks and covered with the foil immediately and then immersed in the temperature of 37 Ã °C shaking water bath. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of water was added into the control flask and note the time as t=0 and then transferred 200 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of the E. coli culture out immediately into the microfuge tube which labelled as 0c tube, mixed well and stored in the ice bath. The same procedure for another set of conical flask but 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of IPTG was used inst ead of water. After that, two conical flasks were placed in the shaking water bath to maintain the temperature constant at 37Ã °C.The previous two steps were repeated for preparing the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 30 and 45 minute time points for the induction flask and 15 and 45 minutes time points for control flask. ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase activity of each sample was ready to be observed after addition ONPG and Na2CO3 which used to stop the assay activity by changing the pH value to 11. (School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2012). ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase Assay. 15 sample of microfuge tubes were placed in the 37Ã °C water bath for 5 minutes to reach thermal equilibrium. Addition of 200 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of 3mM ONPG into each sample at every 30 intervals and addition of 300 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of 1M Na2CO3 into the microfuge tube followed by order after exactly 5 minutes of time of ONPG induction to deactivate the ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase enzyme activities. The time of ONPG induction was recorded. All samples were centrifuged for 5 minutes and then 300 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of supernatant of each sample was taken out and read the absorbance under 414nm with 300 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l water used as the blank. (School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2012). Part B: Characteristics of the induction of ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase Exactly same procedures in the Part A were carried out but several different of conditions were tested in this experiment following by: *A. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of IPTG (5 mM) and 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l of water (this is to keep the culture at closeÃ to the same concentration for all alternatives) *B. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l lactose (20 mM) + 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l H2O. *C. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l IPTG (5 mM) + 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l glucose (20mM). *D. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l IPTG (10 mM) + 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l glucose (20mM).. E. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l IPTG (5 mM) then, after the 10 min sample is removed, add 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼lÃ chloramphenicol (200ÃÅ½Ã ¼g/ml). F. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l IPTG (5 mM) then, immediately after the 10 min. sample is removed,Ã add 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l rifampicin (250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼g/ml). G. 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l IPTG (5 mM) then, immediately after the 10 min. sample is removed,Ã add 250 ÃÅ½Ã ¼l streptomycin (500 ÃÅ½Ã ¼g/ml) . Note: At zero time point, all materials were added into set A, B, C and D while the antibiotic that used in the set E, F and G was added after 10 minutes time points sample has been taken out. (School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2012). Discussions: From the graph shown in the figure 2, it can clearly see that the units of beta-galactosidase per ml of bacterial culture show a positive results when IPTG used in the induction but no response when water used instead of IPTG. The longer the IPTG induction time, the greater the units of beta-galactosidase per ml of bacterial culture produced. It can be explained that, IPTG acts as the inducer which depressed the repressor protein into inactive form by undergoes conformational change in the shape of the repressor protein that prevent them from binding to the operator region. Thus, the RNA polymerases can bind to the promoter site without any obstacles, transcription of lac operon occurs. Therefore, it can be concluded that inducer is playing a significant role in inducing of beta-galactosidase enzyme. Model data provided by the coordinator was used instead of the raw data because there is induction timing error when transferred the sample which causes the failure of the group results as it can notice that there is a sudden decrease in the value of the beta-galactosidase per ml of bacterial culture produced during 12 minutes in the figure 1. Based on the information provided in the part B experiment, the highest value of unit of beta-galactosidase produced was observed when IPTG was presence in the culture environment. An increasing trend of response with lower efficiency of effect were shown in the lactose, IPTG (5mM)+glucose and IPTG (10mM)+ glucose induction. However, as rifampicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol added into the culture samples, a increasing concentration of beta-galactosidase enzyme at the beginning of experiment until 10 minutes then the reactions started to maintain at the constant level. The observations can be elucidated that when both IPTG and lactose were used as the inducer, they play the similar mechanism but the only reason that causes lactose had lower performance is IPTG will not be broken down during reaction whereas lactose will be degraded or used by the cells. As the rate of lactose degradation increases, the concentration of inducer in the culture decreases. In addition, glucose and galactose were formed after hydrolysis of lactose molecule. Glucose molecule is more preferred than the lactose molecule by the E.coli. Hence, a lower performance was shown when lactose was used as the inducer and IPTG always the best choice of inducer to use in the experiment. Since the glucose molecules involved in the experiment, a mechanism named as catabolite repression can be used to illustrated the other two IPTG (5mM)+glucose and IPTG (10mM)+ glucose conditions. Catabolite repression is a mechanism that represses the transcription process by introducing glucose molecules into the reaction since E.coli is more preferred glucose than IPTG while IPTG is essential for switching on the reaction. When the concentration of glucose molecule increases, the level of cyclic-AMP becomes lower. CAMP is required to start the transcription process as it is needed to binds with the Catabolite activator protein (CAP protein) and form an active complex which promotes RNA polymerases binds to promote region. Therefore, if cAMP level is low, there is inactive complex produced it unable to deactivate the repressor protein so repressor protein will bind to o-site and inhibit the occurrence of the transcription process. On the other hand, if the glucose molecule is absence, the high level of cAMP permit the transcription process to take place due to the cAMP binds to the CAP protein to form cAMP.CAP complex and deactivated the repressor protein, transcription takes place. Since the glucose is the preference substrate so when concentration of IPTG increases, it also will not affect the result when glucose is supplied. CTAB solution which also defined as the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and used in the experiment to remove the E.coli cells and also destroyed the membrane of the E.coli cells in order to release ÃÅ½Ã ²-galactosidase enzyme that needed for the experiment from its content. E. coli is the source of the beta-galactosidase enzyme in the experiment. In the IPTG+ chloramphenicol culture condition, there was only IPTG inside the sample at the first 10 minutes and induction of enzyme was occurs but after Chloramphenicol was added the units of beta-galactosidase of bacterial culture remain constant due to the reason that Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that inhibit the protein synthesis process and growth of E.coli (Ambrose,P.J,1984). The polypeptides synthesise of the RNA in the E.coli was hindered when added Rifampicin (Campbell, E. A et al, 2001). Rifampicin changes the shape and structure of the ribosomes which makes the lyses of the ribosomes (Sippel Hartmann, 1968) and also preven ts RNA polymerases from binding to promoter region. After streptomycin was added into the culture sample, Streptomycin inhibits growth of the E.coli by leading to misread the mRNA and protein synthesize disturbance when low amount of streptomycin provided (Modolell,Ã Juan, 1969). Hence, induction of beta-galactosidase activity was prohibited. Nevertheless, high quantity of Streptomycin added will even cause the death of E.coli.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The levels of organizational change readiness This chapter will show my devised framework of the transformation change model to assess the level of readiness for change at AFH,across departments and units; to answer the major and minor research questions; and to achieve the research objective. The devised framework will be examined and evaluated by the use of its different variables in this paper. This chapter will illustrate the research problem, sampling method, propositions and data analysis method. 3.2 Problem Statement Senior management decided to introduce new equipment into all departments across the hospital. This has been a major change project that started in 2007. The main advantages of this change include a reduction in the rate of human error and an increase in the production of patient reports. Despite the positive impact this change would have on the ways of working in the hospital, employees had not been informed of any change prior to it being introduced, and were therefore not ready to accept the new ways of working. Reasons for this lack of acceptance will be discussed later in this paper, including: No communication between senior management and their staff. (Kotter, 2007). Training not being made available to all staff. (Lehman et al, 2002). People resisting change due to both lack of ability and knowledge, and their competing commitment of the big assumptions they will have made regarding the change process. (Kegan and Lahey, 2001). Weak management style, for example, not involving employees in the decision-making process. (Garvin and Roberto, 2001). Weak leadership style such as not clearly explaining the new vision that would come from the change (Garvin and Roberto, 2001). The level of readiness for change at AFH will be assessed and evaluated by applying the change readiness model from the literature so that the organization can achieve its goal of a completing a successful transformation process. In addition, AFH is undergoing further organizational change replacing existing managers with new managers and a new structure, based on the decision of the Ministry of Defense Headquarters in 2010. This change has been implemented in the administration department at AFH as well as across other departments and units. Some of the departments have increased in size and other departments have had to raise staffing levels due to the increased number of patients each year. Goals of the Armed Forces Hospital (AFH): To gain competitive advantage through improving the quality of work-flow by meeting the patients needs through the use of highly specialized and up-to date equipment; to ensure the accuracy of results and to decrease the rate of human error; to produce an increased level of patient results more efficiently. 3.3 Research Objective: The main objective of the thesis is to study the level of organizational change readiness in different departments of the hospital. Creating an acceptance for the need to implement change in the different departments of the hospital will result in the organization achieving its goal of improving the quality of work to treat more patients in less time. which in turn will lead to greater patient and employee satisfaction. To make useful recommendations. To learn more about readiness for change at AFH. 3.4 Conceptual Framework The devised framework is a combination of the Transformational Change Model, John P. Kotter (2007) and the Model of Change Program, Simpson (2002). The conceptual framework has six factors that affect the level of readiness for change in our case study organization (AFH) in Kuwait. We will be using both qualitative (semi-structured interviews) and quantitative (surveys) methods of research to collect our data. Staff Empowerment Leadership Skills Communication Computer availability internet access Adequate qualified staff Adequate Budget Adequate space for each employee Teamwork Vision Organizational Resources Readiness for organizational change Figure 3.1 Conceptual Framework 3.4.1 Dependent Variable of the Model as the following Ready for Organizational Change Judge and Douglas (2009) have defined employee readiness for change as the extent to which an individual or individuals are cognitively and emotionally inclined to accept, embrace and adopt a particular plan to purposefully alter the status-quo. (Judge and Douglas, 2009, P. 637). Arlbjorn et al (2006) have defined change readiness in an organization that the participant gains an understanding of the need to make change in the organization and display a willingness to take part in the change. (Arlbjorn et al, 2006, P. 129). He refers to the importance of staff involvement in the whole journey of the change process (Arlbjorn et al, 2006). He also refers to the importance of organizational alignment where employees from different departments of the organization participate in the change process and discuss shared problems and issues during group exercises. (Arlbjorn et al, 2006, P. 133). An organization that involves its employees at all levels and which has organizational alignment during the change process has an adequate level of organization readiness for change. Our research will assess the organizational readiness for change through a survey of 20 questions to assess employees overall readiness for change, and 26 interviews to find the effect and the relation of the 6 different independent variables of our model on the organizational readiness for change. 3.4.2 Independent Variables of the Model as the following Empowerment: Organizations are currently facing tough competition in a turbulent external environment. In order to ensure their survival they need to have sustained competitive advantage perceived benefits and advantages over their competitors. Competitive advantage provides an organization with the ability to increase the value of the company for its stakeholders. There is a need to transform the way they function by moving away from the traditional hierarchal and bureaucratic model of organization to the delegation of responsibilities to employees and giving more accountability further down the hierarchy to the first-line employees (Beer et al, 1990). This is done by encouraging employees to make more independent decisions at work without the need to constantly refer to their supervisors. Menon (2001) defined employee empowerment as the transfer of organizational power, energizing followers through leadership, enhancing self-efficacy through reducing powerlessness and increasing intrinsic task motivation (Menon, 2001, P. 154). Empowerment has been used to donate the act of empowering others and also to describe the internal process of the individual being empowered i.e. psychological empowerment. Empowerment means the delegating of responsibilities to other employees in decision making that will not only motivate them but make them more innovative towards the new change project which will increase job autonomy and cause job enrichment (Menon, 2001, P. 155). A good leader always empowers their staff in order to perform their work and make independent decisions. Leadership: Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences the behavior or actions of other people (Crossman, 2007, P. 514). Another definition is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals (Robbins, 2005, P. 332). Burns (1978) has characterized transformational leadership through the following characteristics: Changes the status-quo Able to transform the organization Based on creativity and innovation Purpose to engender commitment of the leader and the staff as well to the change process In a successful transformational process we need to acknowledge the importance of leadership skills, such as effective communication, delegation of responsibilities to other employees and commitment. Modern change theories have emphasized both the importance of and the role of a strategic change leader in an organization who enhances the participation and cooperation of their colleagues in the decision-making process. This is unlike the traditional change theories where the emphasis was on the manager for the day to day operation of the business (Almaraz, 1994). In addition there is a need to have senior management support and commitment towards the change process to create the required level of readiness in an organization. In a successful transformation process it is important to establish a change project by having competent employees and by having participative leaders that encourage specialised training for their staff rather than directive managers to acquire change (Arlbjorn et al, 2006). A change leader must know the process of transformation and know how to create and communicate a clear change message to employees. This message determines the nature of the change and shows how employees react differently to the transformation process (Armenakis and Harris. 2002). Change leaders must also know how to answer any questions or concerns staff have regarding the need for change in a proper, convincing way. They must be able to provide tangible evidence to gain the support of their employees and their commitment to the change process (Armenakis and Harris. 2002). Communication: Communication in an organization is the most effective source of learning and developing any transformation process. Regular meetings, conferences and educational programs can all facilitate learning and increase the competency levels of staffing in order to reach the organizational goal of having a successful transformation and adequate level of readiness for change (Beer et al, 1990). A change leader must communicate the change message to employees on a regular basis. They must know how to introduce them to, and convince them of the new change vision through regular meetings to discuss work-related issues, the new change plan and strategies on how to achieve it. Email is an effective communication tool using the internet to send out the most recent and updated information. Use of an organizations intranet is another communication tool where reports can be circulated to employees on a regular basis. A skilled leader must establish a simple plan for change very early on in the change process that ensures employee acceptance, resulting in favourable outcomes and ensures employee involvement in the change process (Garvin and Roberto, 2005). Having regular meetings ensures and enhances active participation from employees in the change process. Teleconferences of live presentations is another way of communicating the change vision and message to employees. Such a teleconference presentation is called readiness speech and so managers and their staff must use the change message component framework to guide the content of the speech. The change concept should be established by a need that is easily understood and circulated among the employees of an organization (Armenakis and Harris. 2002, P. 176). A change leader manager must know how to introduce and regularly communicate the new change vision and the change message with employees through different communication channels such as meetings, speeches and newsletters. Kotter (2007). Leadership by example in different organizational departments/units is highly appreciated. A change leader must walk the talk that is consistent with the organization goal in the workplace and provide support and commitment to the transformation process. Additionally a manager with an open management style provides staff with the opportunity of open discussion and criticism which will be of benefit to both employees as well as the organization. Vision: Leadership vision is designed to mobilize an organization towards the attainment of some future state that is expressed in terms that generate enthusiasm (Armenakis and Harris. 2002). It is important to have a new change vision in the organization and to find strategies to achieve it. Vision is to gain insight into the purpose and objectives with the organization vision whether it is (differentiation, responsiveness and cost-optimization) (Arlbjorn et al, 2006, P. 133). In order to reach an organizational target it is important to develop a shared visionof how to organize and manage for competitiveness (Beer et al, 1990, P. 162). A change leader manager must define and communicate the new change vision to employees and encourage everyone to work towards achieving this vision. The new change vision should define new roles and responsibilities and coordinate the flow of information and work across independent functions at all levels of the organization. There is a need to have strategies to show everyone how to achieve the organizations goals, as well as how to achieve and accomplish the vision. For example, having a simple vision set out in a five year plan that is easy to understand, that is communicated by different stakeholders within the organization e.g. employees, clients and management, and clearly states how to reach the goals and clarifies the direction of the organization. Having a simple vision that is easily communicated and understood by the organization staff within 5 minutes or less is a useful rule of thumb (Kotter, 2007). A successful leader must know how to achieve and accomplish the organizations goals by recognizing obstacles and removing them to overcome different forms of resistance to change such as: Enhancing and increasing employee knowledge and competencies by providing training courses, lectures and workshops on a regular basis to overcome resistance to change. Change and improve organization structure by improving staff performance appraisals to be able to assess change that is consistent with staff interests and develop a staff compensation system to achieve success in the transformation process. Know how to deal with the more rigid management who are against organization development. In brief, leader managers need to treat their staff fairly, delegate accountable responsibilities, provide credibility and motivate them to become involved in the new change project. Teamwork: A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Katzenba ch, 1993). A team is a formal primary group of co-acting individuals who are dedicated and committed toward a common purpose to achieve the organizational goals. It is important to have collaborative, dedicated and cohesive teamwork after the establishment of the change plan as this will ensure the continuing and the accomplishing of the change plan. It will build the sense of employees ownership towards the change project to enhance their support and responsibilities towards the transformation process ((Armenakis and Harris. 2002). In order to have effective teamwork throughout the departments and across the different organizational departments, senior management must enhance employees active participation which is involving employees in activities that are designed to have them learn directly and enjoy the implementation of new issues to add value that is consistent with both employees and organization goals. This will provide opportunities to demonstrate and understand the change message and build the confidence and trust in their managers, supervisors and team based approach taken by their executives (Armenakis and Harris. 2002). In brief, teamwork without strong line leader managers will never achieve the success of the change process, and efforts without powerful guiding teams can make minor progress but will soon stop the change progress (Kotter, 2007, P. 7). Organizational Resources: Having different and adequate organizational resources is an important factor to successfully create readiness in an organization. Change requires adequate resources in various forms such as: competent employees, availability of computers and internet access and covering budget, and requires staff commitment to see the change process through to completion. Employees also need to see support of the change process from their departments (Armenakis and Harris. 2002). Organizational change might be highly desirable but unreachable due to the lack of the following resources: (Lehman et al, 2002) Open budget: in order to support and enhance the change project an organization must have a dedicated budget supported by senior management. This should be spent on having the right offices, furniture and equipment such as computers i.e. components of a healthy working environment, and spent on different specialised training courses, lectures and workshops on a regular basis to facilitate learning and to increase and develop the knowledge, skills and performance of employees (Lehman et al, 2002). Adequate and qualified staffing: an organization should have enough skilled employees to do the required job and must encourage learning to adopt the new ways of working in the transformation process. This is done by increasing the knowledge and competency levels of staff by having regular training courses, presentations and workshops to cope with change and to serve the increased number of patients at the hospital to serve more patients in less time. Providing adequate space/employees: it is important to have the right number of employees in each department section to ensure effective and efficient work-flow and to ensure monitoring and observing of the work process. Computer availability and internet access: an organization must ensure the availability of access to computers, to certain programs and e-communication between management and their staff via e-mails within departments and across departments to exchange useful information and share up to date knowledge regarding the change process. Having e-communication via e-mails and e-conferences is considered to be an effective and professional communication method. In brief, an organization that provides a dedicated budget, reported higher levels of staffing, adequate space and a healthy working environment with more I.T. resources, and that is open to effective communication will be more open to change than those organizations than those that do not. 3.4.3 Major Research Questions: To what extent are the different departments at the AFH ready for change? 3.4.4 Minor Research Questions: 1. Is the level of communication adequate in the different departments of AFH? 2. Is the level of empowerment adequate in the different departments of AFH? 3. Is the level of organizational resources appropriate in the different departments of AFH? 4. Is the level of leadership adequate in the different departments of AFH? 5. Is there a well known vision or strategic objective to the different departments of AFH? 6. Is the level of teamwork satisfactory in the different departments of AFH? 3.4.5 Propositions 1. It is proposed that management do not encourage open communication with their employees as they have seen no benefit from it during several meetings. 2. It is proposed that management do not consult other employees in the decision making process. 3. It is proposed that supervisors are unable to address issues from their staff due to low morale and a low work ethic. 4. It is proposed that management rarely communicate the new change vision during meetings, presentations or through the staff newsletters. 5. It is proposed that there is limited staff accountability and empowerment in the different AFH departments and units. The decision-making power is limited to management only. 6. It is proposed that there is are no risk taking as it is considered costly to both the organization and employees themselves. 7. It is proposed that employees did not receive the necessary training courses to improve their level of competence and readiness for change. 8. It is proposed that internet access is limited to those in more senior positions. 9. It is proposed that management did not fully involve their staff in the work produced. Only verbal guidance was given from behind their desks, showing lack of leadership by example. 10. It is proposed that management listened to employee suggestions and complaints but did not act on or implement them. 11. It is proposed that employees were not informed of the new change vision. 12. It is proposed that management in the different hospital departments did not develop strategies to meet the organization vision. 13. It is proposed that employees are not aware of teamwork. 14. It is proposed that employees lack the sense of ownership towards the change process. Relationship of the Minor Research Questions to the Proposition: Research minor questions Propositions Is the level of communication adequate in the different departments of AFH? 1. It is proposed that management do not encourage open communication with their employees because they have seen no benefit from it during several meetings. 2. It is proposed that management do not consult other employees before taking their decisions. 3. It is proposed that supervisors are unable to address issues from their staff due to low morale and a low work ethic. 4. It is proposed that management rarely communicate the new change vision during meetings, presentations or through staff newsletters. Is the level of empowerment adequate in the different departments of AFH? 5. It is proposed that there is limited staff accountability and empowerment in the different AFH department/unit. The decision-making power is limited to the management only. 6. It is proposed that there is no risk taking as it is considered costly to both the organization and employees themselves. Is the level of organizational resources adequate the different departments of AFH? 7. It is proposed that employees did not receive the necessary training courses to improve their level of competence and readiness for change. 8. It is proposed that internet access is limited to those in higher positions only. Is the level of leadership adequate in the different departments of AFH? 9. It is proposed that managers did not fully involve their staff in the work produced. Only verbal guidance was given from behind their desks, showing lack of leadership by example. 10. It is proposed that management listened to employee suggestions and complaints but did not act on them. Is there a well known vision or strategic objective to the different departments of AFH? 11. It is proposed that employees were not informed of the new change vision. 12. It is proposed that management in the different hospital departments did not develop strategies to meet the organization vision. Is the level of teamwork adequate in the different departments of AFH? 13. It is proposed that employees are not aware of teamwork. 14. It is proposed that employees lack the sense of ownership towards the change process. 3.5 Research Design: There are steps the researcher must follow to answer the research questions such as data collection, sampling, and analysis of interviews and the questionnaire. in order to be able as a researcher to examine the elements of the conceptual framework and how they impact the organizational readiness of change at AFH and to show how these elements can add value to the purpose of the research. We chose to use the qualitative and quantitative (see Appendix A) method and analysis of the data collected from my personal observations and from in-depth interviews as the rigid statistical analysis from quantitative data lacks creativity from the researchers perspective. By contrast, analysis of qualitative data deals with words and human expressions that will enrich the research paper with fewer standardized procedures and allows more creativity from the researcher. The research will be based on using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 26 interviewees. The interview questions are based on the literature and the devised model of transformational process to assess the organizations level of readiness for change. Each interview will last between 8-28 minutes. As mentioned by Sanders et al (2007) either unstructured interviews or semi-structured interviews should be used for exploratory research. As a researcher I decided to use a semi-structured interview as it provides more flexibility and convenience during data collection, as well as allowing deeper exploration of data from the answers given that would add value and credibility to the researcher itself. The research results will be supplemented by the quantitative research method, using a mini survey on a sample of 50 to measure the readiness for change level at AFH. 3.5.1 Research Sampling Methods: Sampling of 26 interviews from different departments / units, different hierarchal positions ranging from managers to front line employees with different working experiences, and different nationalities, to gain feedback on the implementation of the new change project, the establishment of new departments / units, the increase in number of employees, and restructuring of departments to assess the level of readiness towards the major change project / renewal program and new equipment . Mini survey sampling 50 employees (see Appendix B) to measure the readiness for change level at AFH. Interview Questions: For managers For employees 1. Do you encourage your staff to take independent decisions in work related issues? 1. Did your manager encourage you to take independent decisions in work related issues? 2. Did you involve your staff in the new change vision? 3. Did you know/hear about the new change vision? 2. Did your manager mention to you the new change vision? What was it? 3. Did you know/hear about the new change vision? 4. As a manager do you encourage team-work? 5. Did your staff have a sense of ownership for their project? 4. Did your manager encourage you to work as a team? 5. Did you have any sense of ownership towards the new change project? 6. How often do you meet with your staff to discuss work related issues? 6. Did your manager ask you to attend meetings? 7. Did your manager use any speeches or information boards to inform you about new work issues? 8. How often does your manager communicate with you on work related issues? 7. Can you answer your staff on reasons for the need for change? What do you say? 8. Do you encourage open-criticism when you meet with your staff? 9. Do you listen to your staff when making decisions (individualism, collectivism) 10. What do you do in order to convince people regarding change? 9. Did you ask your manager why change is needed? What did they say? 10. Did your manager encourage you to criticize their working style to improve the quality of work? 11. Did your manager listen to you when you gave your opinion on work related issues? 12. What do you learn from your manager (leadership by example)? 11. Do you attend any special training courses/lectures nationally and/or internationally? 12. Is there is any dedicated budget for training courses? 13. How often do you attend training courses/lectures/workshops? Organizational Change Readiness Assessment (Survey) -3=strongly disagree +1=slightly agree -2=disagree +2=agree -1=slightly disagree +3=strongly agree 0=not sure/dont knowIndicate your level of agreement with each statement using the following scale: Organizational Support: Level of agreement 1. The organizations visions are truly a shared vision in that employees at all levels understand, value, and work toward accomplishing this vision through their daily work. 2. Decision making and authority are decentralized (there are multiple levels of decision makers throughout the organization-decision making is not centralized at the top). 3. Employees have, in the past, actively participated in organizational decision making, goal setting, and organizational change initiatives. 4. Employee ideas and suggestions for improving their work and the organization are listened to. 5. Employees view the organizations training and development programmes as effective and supportive of change-driven training needs. 6. The organization is effective at setting and achieving measurable performance goals and targets. 7. The organization effectively uses multiple communication channels to routinely and effectively communicate with employees. Cultural: Level of agreement 8. Real teamwork and collaboration exist within and between organizational works unit/departments. 9. There is a high level of trust between leaders and employees. 10. Employees generally feel encouraged to innovate, offer ideas and take risks. 11. People here generally feel that they personally responsible for their own success. Change Environment: Level of agreement 12. The proposed change and its effects on all organizational dimensions (e.g., structure, strategy, processes, workflow, systems, etc.) are clearly defined and understood by those leading the change. 13. When the change is completed, we will be able to gauge our success with the change effort (there are clear measures to evaluate the change results). 14. The organization has successfully implemented change initiatives in the past. 15. The reason or the why of the coming change can easily be translated into tangible evidence that will get the attention of employees. Employee Attitudes: Level of agreement 16. Employees feel a sense of urgency- a felt need -for change. 17. Employees have a high level of job engagement (job engagement reflects employee commitment to their jobs and the organization). 18. Employees feel able to make decisions and act independently concerning their daily work. 19. Innovators and risk takers exist at all levels of the organization. 20. Employees have confidence in their managers ability to successfully guide them through the change. Readiness component Score Organizational support Cultural Change environment Employee attitudes Total overall change readiness
Monday, August 19, 2019
Marfan syndrome is a primarily an autosomal dominant disorder that affects 1 in 5000 people worldwide. Marfan syndrome is connective tissue disorder that results in a mutation in the Fibrillin 1 gene. The life expectancy of an individual with Marfan syndrome is close to normal with early detection, but Marfan syndrome still remains underestimated due in large part to characteristics similarities that are common in general public. This is compounded by the 25 percent of individuals with a new gene mutation on Fibrillin 1. It is imperative that nurses have a greater understanding of Marfan syndrome in order to facilitate a genetic referral for an early and accurate Marfan syndrome diagnosis. This should include the mechanism of how this genetic mutation manifests thought out the body, the presenting symptoms, the risk factors, treatment, and education needs of the patient. Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a fairly common inherited connective-tissue disorder. The syndrome can be found in 1 in every 5000 births worldwide (Giarelli, Bernhardt, & Pyeritz, 2010). MFS has been recognized for more than 100 years, in fact it was speculated that Abraham Lincoln had the disorder (Amado & Thomas, 2002). There is still no current cure, but early recognition and intervention can play a key role in the prevention of the sudden cardiac complications (Midla, 2008). For those Marfan patients diagnosed the life expectancy is close to normal, yet tends to be under diagnosed (Pyrietz, 2000). The nurse should have a broader understanding of MFS since recognition is essential for the diagnosis. Since MFS is primarily an inherited disorder, it of equal importance that the nurse understands that a referral to a geneticist is an imperative n... ...ssion, and anxiety can occur (Giarelli et al., 2010). Athletes who wish to play sports should have a clinical and cardiac evaluation before allowed to play. Women who are considering getting pregnant should be given have a cardiovascular risk assessment before conceiving and genetic counseling should be recommended to establish the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of passing on the syndrome (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005). While significant advances have provided MFS patients with a greater life expectancy, the fact still remains that early detection is imperative in improving of care for the MFS patient . As MFS patients live longer and symptoms become evident. Nurses need to recognize that these patients will often present in a routine clinical setting, where their clinical expertise and genetic knowledge may open the door to early diagnosis and treatment.