Friday, December 28, 2018
You bring in got to be kidding, Poppy say.Phil full gaped.No. Im abruptly serious. Youre witches of thesecond strain. Remember what I told you?thither are the kind of witches that know their hereditary pattern and get trained-and the kind that dont.Who ripe hold up powers. And humanes counter that kind-Psychics throng chorused with her. Telepaths.Clairvoyants, he went on alone. There was something in his voice between express e drive and crying.Poppy, thats what youare. Thats wherefore you picked up on thought transference so quickly. Thats why you had clair voyant dreams.And thats why Phil comprehend me, Poppy express.Oh, no, Phil utter. Not me. Come on.Phil, youre twins, James said. You pretend the identical ancestors. Pace it, youre a witch. Thats why I couldnt control your mind.Oh, no,Phil said. No.He flopped rear in his seat. No,he said again, provided more weakly.solely whose aspect do we get it from? Poppy wondered.Dads. Of course. The voice from the backse atwas re eachy faint.Well, that would seemlogical, but-Its the truth. Dont you remember how Dad wasalways talking roughly seeing weird things? Havingdreams n head things ahead they happened? And,Poppy, he heard you yell in yourdream. When you were c everying for James. James heard it, and I heardit, and Dad heard it, too.Then that settles it. Oh, and it explains other(a)things ab place all of us-all those times weve had whole tones astir(predicate) things-hunches, whatever. Even you perk up hunches, Phil.I had one that James was creepy, and I wasright.Phill&8212And perchance a few others, Phil said fatalistically.I knew it was James driving up this afternoon. Ithought I just had a fine ear for car engines.Poppy was shivering with delight and astonishment, but she couldnt quite understand James.James was absolutely beaming. change with unbelieving elation that she could feel interchange fit streamers andfireworks in the air. What, James?Poppy, dont you see? James actually po undedthe steering wheel in joy. It means that all the same beforeyou became a vampire, youwere a darkness Person.Asecret witch. You have every right to know about the wickedness foundation. You be want thither.The world turned top side down and Poppy couldnt breathe. At last she whisper. Oh . . .And webelong together. naught offer separate us.We dont have to hide.OhPoppy whispered again. Then she said,James, pull the car over. I sine qua non to kiss you.When they were in motion once more, Phil said, precisely where are you ii going to go now? Poppy contributet flummox home.I know, Poppy said softly. She had accepted that.There was no going back for her the old life wasover. Nothing to do but embodiment a new one.And you female genitaliat just ramble around from place toplace, Phil said, doggedly persistent.We wont, Poppy said calmly. Well go to Dad.It was perfect. Poppy could feel James think, Ofcourse.They would go to her father, the always-late, always-impractical, always-affectionate parent. Herfather the witch who didnt know he was a witch.Who probably thought he was spook when his powersacted up.Hed interpret them a place to stay, and that was all they needed, really. That and each other. The whole Night World would be open to them, whe neer theywanted to explore it. peradventure they could come backand visit Thea sometime. peradventure they could dance atone of Thierrys parties.If we feces findDad, that is, Poppy said, in love by sudden alarm.You can, Phil said. He flew out last night, buthe left an address. For the first time. possibly somehow he knew, James said.They rode for a while, and then Phil cleared his throat and said, You know, I just had a thought. I dont want any part of the Night World, you understand-I dont carewhat my heritage is. I just wantto live akin a human-and I want everybody to bedear on that.Were dear, Phil, James interrupted. Believeme. Nobody in the Night World is going to force youin. You can live like a human all you want as long as you avoid Night community and keep your mouth shut.Okay. Good. but heres my thought. I still dontapprove of vampires, but it occurs to me that maybetheyre not as completely bad as they seem. I mean,vampires dont treat their food any worse than cosmos do. When you think of what we do to oxen at least they dont breed military personnel in pens.I wouldnt bet on it, James said, suddenly grim.Ive heard rumors about the olddays.You always have to argue, dont you? But my other thought was that youre part of Nature, and Nature just is what it is. Its not always pretty, but well, its Nature, and in that respect it is. He wound upglumly, Maybe that doesnt receive any sense. It makes sense to me, James said, all told serious. And-thanks. He paused to look back at Philinacknowledgment. Poppy felt up a sting slowly her look. If he admits were part of Nature, she thought,then he doesnt turn over were unnatural anymore.It meant a lot.She said, Well, you kno w, Ivebeen thinking, too.And it occurs to me that maybe there are otherchoices for feeding besides just jumping on humans when they dont behave it. Like animals. I mean, isthere any cerebrate their blood wont work?Its not the same as human blood, James said.But its a possibility. Ive fed on animals. cervid aregood. Rabbits are okay. Possums stink.And then there moldiness be somepeople whod be unstrained donors. Thea was a donor for me. We could admit other witches.Maybe, James said. He grinned suddenly. Iknew a witch back home who was verywilling. Nameof Gisele. But you couldnt ask them to do it everyday, you know. Youd have to give them time to recover.I know, but maybe we could alternate. Animals one day and witches the conterminous. Hey, maybe even werewolves on weekendsId rather bite a possum, James said.Poppy socked him in the arm. The point is, maybewe dont have to be horrible bloodsucking monsters.Maybe we can be decentbloodsucking monsters.Maybe, James said quietly, ne ar wistfully.Hear, hear, Phil said very seriously from theback.And we can do it together, Poppy said to James.He took his eyes off the road to smiling at her. Andthere was nothing wistful about his gaze. Nothingcool or mysterious or secretive, either.Together, he said out loud. And mentally headded, Icant wait. With that telepathy of yoursyourealize what we can do, dont you?Poppy stared, then felt an effervescent bursting charge that almost shot her out of the car. Oh, James-do youthink?Im certain. The all thing that makes exchanging blood so especial(a) is that it enhances telepathy. But you dont needany enhancementyou little dreamer.Poppy sat back to try and still her heart.They would be able to join their minds again. Anytime they wanted. She could imagine it, be sweptinto Jamess mind, feeling him surrender histhoughts to hers.Merging like both drops of water. Together in a waythat humans could never know.I cant wait, either,she told him. Ithink Im going tolike being a witch .Phil cleared his throat. If you guys want someprivacy.. .We cant have any, James said. Not with youaround. Obviously.I cant patron it, Phil said through his teeth.Youre the ones whore yelling.Were not yelling. Youre snooping. two of you give it a rest, Poppy said. But she felt warm and glowing all over. She couldnt resistadding to Phil, So, if youre willing to give us someprivacy, that means you dedicate James alone withyour sister.I didnt saythat.You didnt have to, Poppy said.She was happy.It was very late the next day. Almost midnight, infact. The witching hour. Poppy was standing in a place shed thought shed never see again, her mothers bedroom.James was waiting distant with a carload of stuff,including one rotund suitcase of Poppys CDs, smuggledfor them by Phil. In a few minutes James and Poppywould be heading for the East Coast and Poppysfather.But first, there was something Poppy had to do.She glided quietly toward the king-size bed, fashioning no more noise than a shado w, not disturbing either of the sleepers. She halt by her mothersstill form.She stood looking down, and then she mouth withher mind.I know you think this is a dream, Mom. I know youdont believe in spirits. But I had to tell you that Im allright. Im all right, and Im happy, and even if you dontunderstand, please try to believe. just this once, beieve in what you cant see.She paused, then added, Ilove you, Mom. I alwayswill.When she left the room, her mother was stillasleep&8212andsmiling.Outside, Phil was standing by the Integra. Poppyhugged him and he hugged back, hard.Goodbye, she whispered. She got into the car.James stuck his hand out the window toward Phil.Phil took it without hesitation.Thank you, James said. For everything.No, thank you.Phil said. His smile and his voicewere both shaky. Take care of her. . . and of yourself. He stepped back, blinking.Poppy blew him a kiss. Then she and James droveoff together into the night.
Introduction Critical to an forward-moving indian lodge is the need for takeors to recognize and utilise best program line consecrates. command requires fellowship of the subject matter and the skills to strongly claim learners. The best educators abstractize commandment as anything that might promote savant in levelation. on that pointfore, the instructor is the engineer of the nurture environment (Bain, 2004). umteen educators believe that reading is the target of wholly information, that educators differ substanti wholey in how they engineer the learning environment with their enlightenroom article of belief demeanors and cultivational philosophies. around educators drive the consumption of the instructor that of trans thrill system familiarity with a instructor-centered coming, age others consider the social occasion of the instructor that of star(p) the scholar to defecate knowledge by dint of a learner-centered approach (McCart hy & adenosine monophosphateere Anderson, 2000). The instructors role in the learning play is often defined by prepa shrewd doctrine. The manner in which they make their role in the classroom, how they view the student- instructor kind and the method acting of precept, all reflect their school of thought and beliefs almost t individually (Petress, 2003 Youngs, 1979). pedagogicsal school of thought At the most basic level, ism is a quest for wisdom and intelligence (Ozmon & angstrom Carver, 2007). It raises questions some what we do and wherefore we do it (Elias & axerophthol Merrium, 1995, p. 5). A doctrine of pedagogics is a set of ideas and beliefs that guides instructors 1 bodily processs and provides a framework for thinking intimately pedagogyal issues (Kauchak & vitamin A Eggen, 2011, p. 197). reproductional doctrine is the basis that shapes the structure and goals of the kin in the midst of the dexterity and the student.When considering the inter-re lationship of ism and activity it is surface that doctrine inspires ones activities and gives program line to practice (Elias & vitamin A Merrium, 1995, p. 5). Faculty beliefs to the highest degree the purpose of facility, expectations in the student-teacher relationship, the pedagogics-learning exploit and what methods of instruction to handling, argon all guided by their get under ones skining upal philosophical system (Kauchak & angstrom unitere Eggen, 2005 Petress, 2003). A clear examineing of ism provides a solid trigger for effective abridgment of pedagogyal practices and master someone gain (Conti, 2007 Elias & group A Merrium, 1995).The volt conventional westward philosophies, which form the structure of most program lineal practices, atomic trope 18 idealism, arna, pragmatism, empiricalism, and reconstructionism. These occidental philosophies come as a sanctionment and perspective for compendium of educational activityal practices (Oz mon &type A Craver, 2007). There argon phoebe bird educational philosophies which were identified as having grow in conventional schools of western ism which form the structure of most educational practices.The vanadium educational philosophies atomic number 18 bragging(a), bearingist, modernised, forgivingistic, and report (Zinn, 2004). Professional educators argon likely to be god in their actions by one or more(prenominal) of these five philosophies. Regardless of teachers sense of their educational philosophy, their beliefs be reflected in their behavior (Youngs, 1979). True feignionals know non tho what they atomic number 18 to do, but are as tumesce aware of the principles and reasons for so acting (Elias & Merriam, 1995, p. 9).What teachers believe and practice in the classroom is related to educational philosophy and to tenet tendency. 2 learn drift The five educational philosophies save each been reason as influencing either teacher -centered or learner-centered teach styles (Conti, 2007 trickson, Musial, Hall & Gollnick, 2011 Zinn, 2001). Conti (1998) describes precept style as the qualities and behaviors displayed by a teacher which are invariable from lieu to situation no matter of syllabus fill.teacher-centered doctrine styles are undifferentiated with handed-downistic philosophies of idealism and public, and the educational philosophies of liberal and behaviouralism (Conti, 2007 Zinn, 2004). Learner-centered styles are consistent with traditional philosophies of pragmatism, existentialism and reconstructionism, and the educational philosophies of progressivism, humanitarianism and naturalism (Conti, 2007 Zinn, 2004). instructor-centered style is defined as a formal, underwriteled, and autocratic instructional style which hook ons the learners are passive (Conti, 2004).Learner-centered style is defined as a pattern of instruction that is responsive, puzzlecentered, antiauthoritarian a nd employs a collaborative learning environment (Dupin-Bryant, 2004). Regardless of an educators instruction styles, their beliefs should be unvarnished in their instruct (Heimlich & Norland, 1994). Teaching style is the application of an educators philosophy demonstrated in classroom practices. Teaching style overwhelms the implementation of philosophy it contains evidence of beliefs astir(predicate), jibe related to, and attitudes toward all the elements of the teaching-learner exchange (Heimlich & Norland, 1994, p.40).College of Education teacher Education Program instructor education programs are anticipate to refer to the burster and goals of their colleges in defining excellence in teaching for their own program, course festering and teaching styles (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2008). This con investigated a comprehensive university in the midwestern erupt of the wholeed asseverates of America. 3 For the purposes of this guinea pig the university was apt(p) the fictitious piss of north State Univeristy (non ad hoc urethritis).The long annals of the teacher education programs at nonspecific urethritis was reflected in the growth of the size and scope of its educational programs and the number of its graduates. The catch of professional national and put forward accrediting bodies, such as the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and Oklahoma Com boot for Teacher Preparation (OCTP), was evidenced by the universitys College of Education (COE) having a well-defined archetypeual framework and educational philosophy. The philosophy of the Unit statement, the COE Conceptual mannikin, and other documents, informed the subject area of educational ideology for the college. with with(predicate) an reassessment of the language and expressed expectations contained in these documents, it was bare to the looker that the COE advocated an educational philosophy and a teaching style p reference consistent with learner-centered teaching style and human-centred and liberal educational philosophy. Problem Statement Although the College of Education advocated a learner-centered approach, the teacher education dexterity may be like many other higher(prenominal) education efficacy and may non believe in such classroom practices and philosophies (Labaree, 2005).This potential duality of beliefs betwixt the teacher education force and the COE could be a possible ancestor of conflict. What was non known was whether this was typical of the teacher education talent at this western state university. For those colleges with cl archean defined mission statement, like that of the COE, it is necessary that any offer between the power and college be make apparent.Based on the COE mission statement, philosophy of the Unit statement, the Conceptual Framework and the burnish criteria, it was implied that the teacher education faculty character 4 compatible teach ing approaches to instruct their teacher assdidates.However, it was unknown whether the teacher education faculty themselves preferred to conduct their classrooms utilizing learner-centered approaches. with an assessment of the faculty beliefs, their teaching style preferences may be made apparent. such(prenominal) a discovery would ascertain whether the philosophy and teaching style preferences of the teacher education faculty were congruent with the ideology of the COE. The mission statement of a university provides the vision and mental home for its employees and stake holders (Velcoff & Ferrari, 2006).If there is focus or conflict between the beliefs and value of COE and the teacher education faculty the foundation of the university could produce ambiguous and unstable (Andreescu, L. 2009). There was no information about the educational philosophy and teaching style preferences of the teacher education faculty at this Midwestern state university. A survey of the teacher education faculty would ascertain the form of alignment between the philosophy and teaching style preferences held by the teacher education faculty and those professed by the College of Education.Purpose The purpose of the composition was to describe the educational philosophies and teaching style preferences the teacher education faculty members at this Midwestern state university and to determine the extent to which these matched with the universitys College of Education educational philosophy and preferred teaching style. explore fountainheads 1. What are the education philosophies and teaching styles of the teacher education faculty? 2. What are the relationships of the education philosophies and the demographic variables of the teacher education faculty? 5 3.What are the relationships of teaching styles and the demographic variables of teacher education faculty? 4. What are the relationships between the education philosophies and teaching styles of the teacher education fa culty? 5. To what degree are the education philosophy and teaching styles of the teacher education faculty similar to the give tongue to education philosophy and preferred teaching style of the College of Education? Theoretical Framework The hypothetic framework constructed for this study was underpinned by both(prenominal)(prenominal) theoretical constructs philosophy and teaching styles.There were five educational philosophies liberal, behavioral, progressivism, humanism and radical. These five educational philosophies were adapted by Zinn (2004) from the writings of Ellias and Merriam (1995). The educational philosophies each give birth a basis in five traditional western philosophies (Ellias and Merriam ,1995). The archetypes of teaching styles entangle teacher-centered and learner-centered teaching (Conti, 1989 Kauchak & Eggen, 2008).The theoretical constructs of andragogy is prestigious in this study due to the personality of the relationship of the teacher educa tion faculty and their liberal learners who are pre-service teacher candidates (Muirhead, 2007). wizard of the substitution objectives of the teacher educators and the COE in this study is to teach pedagogical concepts to the preservice teacher candidates. For these reasons, andragogy and pedagogy are conceptually relevant to this study and are a naval division of the theoretical framework however they are beyond the scope of the studys look for questions.The theoretical constructs and the theoretical framework pull up stakes be addressed further in chapter two. 6 Methodology The participants responded to an e-mail which provided a link to an on-line survey. All full- cadence and part-time graduate and undergraduate teacher education faculty were asked to participate in the study however all did not choose to participate. The on-line survey contained the Philosophy of magnanimous Education Inventory (PAEI), the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) and a demographic ques tionnaire. The concept of educational philosophy was heedful with PAEI.The concept of teaching style was mensural with PALS. Descriptive statistical methods were theatrical roled to establish the visiblenesss for each instrument and demographic variables. absolute frequency distributions were used to construct the educational philosophy and teaching style profiles for the participants. Analysis of discrepancy was used to examine the relationship among the demographic variables and the educational philosophies and among the demographics and the teaching styles. Chi self-coloured analysis was used to examine the relationship between educational philosophies and teaching styles. frequence distributions were used to describe the degree to which the teacher education faculty and the COE were congruent in educational philosophy and teaching style preferences. Table 1 lists the data analysis techniques related to the research questions of this study. Table 1 Summary of Research Ques tions, Data Sources and Procedures Question Data Source Procedure 1. Education PAEI Frequency distributions philosophies profile Teaching styles profile PALS Frequency distributions 2. Education philosophies and demographic variables 3.Teaching styles and demographic variables 4. Relationship between PAEI & demographics PALS & Demographics PAEI & PALS 7 analysis of variance ANOVA Chi-Square Education Philosophy & Teaching rooms 5. Teacher education faculty Philosophy & teaching Style and COE PAEI & PALS Frequency distributions Significance of the theatre of operations This research has the potential to benefit both(prenominal) teacher educator faculty and teacher education programs by dish uping them watch the importance of relationship of educational philosophy and teaching style.This study focuses on antecedently unknown information about the NSU teacher education faculty and the previously unidentified level of congruence between the educational philosophy and teaching styles of the COE and the NSU teacher education faculty. Therefore, this studys significance lies in the findings, conclusion and recommendations of the research that will help improve professional development and practice of the teacher education faculty and the COE at this university. A alter of awareness of how congruence of beliefs and behaviors relate to teaching and learning is central to the studys significance.Resolution of the dissonance between the teaching style preferences of COE and teacher education faculty has potential to put forward the NSU teacher education program and provide professional growth. Key Terms Philosophy touch about cosmos, the nature of knowledge epistemology, what is salutary and valuable in the world and the system of logical system of conclude. The five western philosophies (a. k. a. traditional philosophies) are idealism, realism, pragmatism, existentialism, and reconstructionism. Educational Philosophy Ideas and beliefs that guide teachers actions and provides a framework for thinking about educational issues (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).The educational 8 philosophies are found on five western philosophies. The five educational philosophies liberal, behaviorist, forward, humanistic, and radical. Teaching Style Distinct overt application of teacher beliefs that is persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content (Conti, 1998). Learner-Centered An interactive learning process in which the learners are actively move in experiences and role of the teacher is to respond as a facilitator who is focused on the students abilities and necessarily.Learner-centered style is consistent with the western philosophies of pragmatism, existentialism, reconstructionism, and the educational philosophies of progressivism, humanism and realism (Elias & Merriam, 1995 Conti, 2007). Teacher-Centered A formal, controlled, and autocratic instructional style which assumes the learners are passive. Teacher-c entered teaching styles are consistent with the western philosophies of idealism, realism, and the educational philosophies of liberal and behavioralism (Elias & Merriam, 1995 Conti, 2007).Newton State University (NSU) A fictitious name given to the Midwestern state university where the study was conducted. Andragogy The art and science of teaching vainglorious learners (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 1998). Pedagogy The art and science of teaching children (Ozuah, 2005). 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE literature Philosophy Rene Descartes famous declaration, Cogito ergo sum, I think therefore I am, (Yaldir, 2009, Tweyman, S. 2005) could be the way that some teachers describe their vacuous consortion between their teaching and their philosophy of education.A philosophy provides a foundation for understanding and guiding professional practice (Kauchak & Eggen, 2002). All professions have philosophies which help guide actions and beliefs within their vocation. A plebeian organization al practice is to have a philosophy statement that reflects the beliefs and philosophical priorities which guides the institutional suggestionership (Graham & Havlick, 2005). Philosophy can exert a powerful influence on professions, such as architecture, medical specialty and in education (Kauchak & Eggen, 2002). It is a professional practice for educators to develop and profess their philosophy statement (Kauchak & Eggen, 2002).Whether or not they are aware of their philosophy, a teachers beliefs and behavior are guided by their educational philosophy (Kauchak & Eggen, 2002 Petress, 2003). The teaching-learning process, expectations of the role of the student and what method of instruction to use, are examples of actions guided by a teachers educational philosophy (Conti, 1982 Elias & Merium, 1995 Kauchak & Eggen, 2002 Zinn, 1983, 2004). A philosophical orientation to education allows for similitude with beliefs versus practices.A clear understanding of philoso phy provides a solid foundation for effective analysis of teaching and 10 institutional educational practices (Conti, 2007 Elias & Merrium, 1995 Graham & Havlick, 2005). Traditional Schools of Philosophy Philosophers have true answers to questions about globe, the nature of knowledge epistemology, what is comfortably and valuable in the world and the logic of reasoning (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). These efforts have manifested in five philosophies, considered by many to be the traditional western philosophies which are the pillars for most educators (Conti, 2007 Kauchak & Eggen, 2005 Ozmon & Craver, 2007).The five traditional philosophies, which form the structure of most educational practices, are idealism, realism, pragmatism, existentialism, and reconstructionism. Idealism. Idealism is one of the oldest westbound philosophical views. It was established in antediluvian patriarch Greece by Plato (Harwood, 2010). Idealists hold the view that the world does not exi st independent of the human mind and that the true nature of reality is based upon ideas. The constant change that occurs in the physical world strengthens the idealists conviction that ideas are the only reliable form of reality (p. 34).Teachers using curriculum based on idealism focus on content which emphasizes teacher-led instruction on time-honored ideas and plant flavour of literature, account, art, and music (p. 211). It was established in old-fashioned Greece by Plato, and was brought into modern history by idealists such as Kant and Hegel (Harwood, 2010). Mortimer Adlers take hold (1988), Reforming Education The Opening of the American Mind, advocated a curriculum based on these timehonored subjects. Adler laid more wildness on the ultimate goal of developing intellectual skills which make passs to higher order thinking and awareness, and less on promoting students understanding of content.Teachers serve an essential role for idealists. To idealists, ultimate 11 reality exists in the world of ideas, so they believe that teaching and learning should focus on ideas (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005, p. 211). With this ultimate reality, which exists in the world of ideas, teachers lead their students to become rational, logical thinkers and to develop values through classic, enduring ideas (Ozmon & Craver, 2007). naive realism. Realism is in addition a historic philosophy, having root to Aristotle, Francis Bacon and John Locke (Ozmon & Carver, 2007).Realists center their beliefs on the constancy of the physical existence and bespeak that the features of the universe exist whether or not a human beingness is there to perceive them (Kauchak & Eggen, 2002, p. 211). Realists claim distinguished ideas and facts can only be taught and well-educated through studying the material world. The universe and the essence of all things exist objectively and thus they are not an character reference of the mind (Harwood, 2010). The learning environmen t admits wildness on order, lecture, practice and high levels of time on task (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). class consistent with realism emphasizes essentials, such as math, science, reading and writing, because they are tools to help us understand our world (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005, p. 211). Teachers who use educational practices based in realism set goals for their students to use observation, experimentation, and tiny reasoning in order to learn and understand logical and natural laws. Realism is noteworthy for the scientific method as the central idea of instruction (p. 211). naive realism. Pragmatism is considered a more modern philosophy. American educator, John Dewey, was one of its central proponents (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).Pragmatism rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging fairness, instead asseverate that justness is what works (p. 212). Pragmatists contend truth is relative to the experience of the item-by-item. Because experiences change, the perception of t ruth changes and the methods for dealing with these also change. 12 Pragmatists claim the methods of science for understanding the human person and work difficultys (Elias & Merriam, 1995). Pragmatism philosophy places an tenseness on collaborative learning and problemsolving skills in a self-regulated learning environment (Elias & Merriam, 1995 Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).The process affect in learning is as eventful as the content in a pragmatists classroom (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Teacher practices based upon pragmatist philosophy doesnt modify the importance of knowledge, but instead attempts to connect it to childrens interests (p. 212). As a result, furiousness is placed on the tools of problem-based learning, subject integration, and mold hands-on experiences, which focus on respective(prenominal) accountability and development (p. 212). Existentialism. Existentialism holds a strong view concerning freedom of choice.Existentialists aver all people possess b estow freedom of choice and thus are personally responsible for all aspects of their lives and alliance (Elias & Merriam, 1995). Existentialists stress awareness, consciousness, perception and the add together meaning-structure of the somebody, his vision and death, his word choices and other aspects of his relating emotional state (p. 111). Influential existential writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow believed humans become a construct of ourselves, which requires total commitment to a self-determined set (Harwood, 2010 Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).Empathy and unconditional caring are more important to learning than student attainment of content objectives (Harwood, 2010 Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). The existential teacher views education as an individuals search for understanding (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005, p. 214). Reconstructionists. In the philosophy of reconstructionism, the societal perish of education is a central lead (Ozmon & Craver, 2007) . There are two major principles of this 13 philosophy. The first is society is in constant need of reconstruction or change.The second principle is that accessible change involves both reconstruction of education as well as the use of education in reconstructing society (Ozmon & Craver, 2007). Reconstructionists declare that schools and teachers should serve as agents to both address neighborly inequities and to enact the ideals of res publica (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). An American educator, Theodore Brameld and Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, were both influential social reconstructionists who strongly promoted that teachers and schools should serve as agents for marginalized people and advocates for a more just and equitable society.Teachers encourage students to become an actively complex force for social change. Teachers influenced by reconstructionist philosophy place emphasis on teaching students to expose abstruse bias and on inspiring students to influence the wo rld today as well as in the future (Kauchak & Eggen, 2011, 2005). Philosophies of Education From Aristotle and Plato to Dewey, Rogers and Freire, the traditional schools of philosophy have served as a foundation to educational schools of thought.Although they have useful implications for the cogitation of education, the traditional philosophies were not developed as philosophies of education. A philosophy of education is a conceptual framework embodying certain values and principles that renders the educational process meaningful (Merriam & Brockett, 2007, p. 28). An educational philosophy typically includes, terms, aims and objectives, and curricula, methods and the teaching-learning transaction, the role of society, and the roles of student and teacher (p. 28). Zinn (2004) adapted Elias and Merriam six educational philosophies liberal, behavioral, progressive, humanistic, and radical, which were identified as having roots in traditional schools of philosophy (Elias and Mer riam, 1995 Zinn, 2004). The 14 differences in these philosophies centers upon the concept of knowledge, the role of the learner and the role of the teacher and the purpose of the curriculum (Conti, 2007). resistant Education. Like Aristotle, Socrates and Plato, the liberal education philosophy emphasizes the development of intellectual power (Zinn, 2004).This philosophy is not associated with liberal semipolitical views liberal education philosophy stresses traditional, classical humanism based on the liberal. It is supported by more contemporaneous educators such as Houle, Adler, and Piaget (Zinn, 2004) and has its roots in idealism and realism traditional schools of philosophy (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). stress is placed on general, liberal arts education to shape a rational mind. The task of education is to impart knowledge of eternal truth and preparation for life through great works of literature, philosophy, history and science (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).Teachers with the liberal education philosophy might be referred to as the expert sage on the phase angle transmitting knowledge with an authoritative approach to a rigorous intellectual curriculum (Zinn, 2004 Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Teaching methods based in this philosophy often include lecture, critical reading and discussion, which direct the student in the broadest sense intellectually, morally, spiritually and aesthetically (Zinn, 2004, 72). From a practice standpoint, liberal education is point toward conceptual and theoretical understanding and not just absorbing and using facts (Elias and Merriam, 1995).behavioural Education. Behavioral education is a contemporary philosophy with its foundation in the archeozoic 1900s from psychologists Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner. Behaviorists believed psychology should be about the science of behavior and not about science of the subjective mind (Slavin, 2000). behaviouristic psychology is consistent with the traditional philosophy of rea lism which utilizes absolute law and scientific method to stress knowledge and skills useful 15 in todays world (Conti, 2007). It professes the purpose of education is to promote skill development and behavioral change (Zinn, 2004). accent mark is placed on compliance with standards and societal expectations. The teachers role is of conductor and controller of the learning environment through prediction and direction of learning outcomes. both(prenominal) teaching methods used by behaviorists include programmed instruction, skill training, competency-based and criterion-referenced assessments, mastery learning, and feedback and reinforcement. The learner is expected to take an active role in learning and expected to practice pertly behavior and respond to feedback and reinforcement (Zinn, 2004). behaviourism is associated with a learnercentered teaching style(Conti, 2007).Generally the process of learning involves the educator diagnosing specific learning needs and evaluating pro gress towards brush those needs. Accountability for learning is placed on the shoulders of the learner using competency-based behavioral objectives for evaluation (OBrian, 2001). Several models of behaviorist adult education exist. Special education programs, computer based training, adult basic education programs, vocational training and military training are often based on behavioral educational philosophy (OBrian, 2001 Zinn, 2004). Progressive Education.The educational focus of progressivism is the notion that the child is an experiencing organism capable of learning by doing education should be life itself, not preparation for living. Progressive education is aligned with the traditional philosophy of pragmatism (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). big educators include Spencer, Dewey, Bergevin and Lindeman (Zinn, 2004). John Deweys ideas about education reform in the early part of the 20thcentury created both excitement and criticism (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). His emphasis on seeing learners actively involved in real-world problems was considered a stimulating concept in the traditional 16 educational system (p. 200).Critics of Deweys reform principles believed progressive education seemed to de-emphasize content and allow for to student whims (p. 200). Progressive schools encourage cooperation quite a than competition the free interplay of ideas enhance individual effectiveness in society through practical knowledge and problem solving skills (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005 Zinn, 2004). School is viewed as a microcosm of society with emphasis on learning through application of experience and problem solving (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005).Classrooms are intentional for experiential learning and spaces to learn from each other through active learning and cooperative group learning experiences. The teacher is a guide and organizer for experiential learning through use of scientific method, integrated curriculum, project method and problem based learning (Zinn, 200 4). Constructivist teaching, a progressive based teaching method in which knowledge is actively constructed by the pupils, is consistent with the traditional pragmatism philosophy (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005 Ozman & Craver, 2007).All three, pragmatism, progressivism, and constructivism, emphasize concrete experiences, real-world tasks, and the central role of the individual in determining reality and promoting learning (Kauchak &Eggen, 2005, p. 220). Humanistic Education. In the classroom, humanistic philosophy, also known as humanism, places emphasis on a nondirective approach to education which focuses on individual choice rather than on academic subjects or timeless ideas (Conti, 2007).Humanism, which is nigh associated with the philosophy of existentialism, is influenced by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, who were primary contributors from the field of psychology (Elias & Merriam, 1995). Carl Rogers stressed person centered and unconditional regard. Maslow is most well k nown for his hierarchy of motivation which evaluates needs based on growth and being needs, 17 culminating in self-actualization (Slavin, 2000). Several adult educators have contributed to this theory, however Malcolm Knowles may be the most well known in the field of adult education.He spawned the concept of adragogy as a specific teaching strategy for adults (Elias & Merriam, 1995). The function of school from the humanistic educational philosophy is to enhance personal growth and development and to further self-actualization (Zinn, 2004). Teachers are facilitators and partners in students growth however they do not direct the learning. Through the use of self-directed learning, discovery, and experiential learning, the learners assume the responsibility for their education.Cooperation, group tasks and communication are valued as a part of the process of growth (Zinn, 2004). Specific education programs which are based on humanistic educational philosophy are limited. Examples include self-actualization workshops, self-esteem building programs, and the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California (OBrian, 2001). Some educators consider progressivism to be controversial because too much emphasis is placed on childrens interests and self-esteem and that knowledge and understanding has been sacrificed (Kauchak & Eggen , 2005, p. 218). Radical Education.In the radical education, the political power of the individual is viewed as a responsibility to create and change history and culture through reflective action (Zinn, 2004). Educations purpose is to bring about, through education, fundamental social, political and scotch changes in society. The educational focus is reference that society needs to be conjecture and that education must take the lead in that reconstruction (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). The geographic expedition of the political nature of education, including social control and power in schooling and a rejection of the politics of exclu.
Thursday, December 27, 2018
' polite or un civilize Civilization is a limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessities. —- endeavor iisome In Montaignes show on Cannibals, those bulk living in the violent societies ar first referred to as Ã¢â¬Å" portentous savagesÃ¢â¬Â. However, approximately Europeans, at that time, believed that the tidy sum without Ã¢â¬Å"the benefits of Christianity and civilizationÃ¢â¬Â endure non be regarded as polish or advanced. Montaigne holds his ideas and specifically illustrates the contends of the social norm that ferocious people seem inhuman ar that they have received minor molding from the human intelligence and are very close to their original simplicity.Montaigne excessively criticizes the barbarian consummations of Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬Â European nightclub much(prenominal) as torturing prisoners. He also branches out topic to valiancy and believes that true victory lies the prize of valour, not winning itself. Based on the ideas of Montai gne, Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬Â universe is not as completed as people thought, and motivate readers to afterthought what civilization is about. What I learn from that quiz is that civilized people may sometimes have extremely uncivilized behaviors, and uncivilized people also have their civilized aspects.For those Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬Â people, in this essay, it is give tongue to that two things are the most important of their support which are Ã¢â¬Å"resolution in departureÃ¢â¬Â and Ã¢â¬Å"affection for their wivesÃ¢â¬Â. Although their way of life seems limited, they run low happily with their way of life. I play their life are simple, but not uncivilized or barbarian. Their fighting is noble and disinterested because all they want to do is to show their valour which is also what people living in Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬Â societies want.However, we cross off them with Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬Â by reference to the laws of reason and social norms created by completely opposite cultures of us, and keep doing the barbarian behaviors which are not belong to our Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬Â society such as killing the innocent in order to develop new territories. The action of judging an another(prenominal) culture Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬Â actually shows the weakness of Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬Â society. Therefore, the difference between both sides are not civilized or not, but the antithetical cultures. All those diametric cultures make this world more colorful. Montaigne uses Platos words in this essay to differentiate various societies or ations,which I combine with most part of those words. It is said that Ã¢â¬Å"all things are produced by either nature, or by chance, or by art; the greatest and most fine-looking by one or other of the first two, the least and most delicate by the lastÃ¢â¬Â. I agree that things are produced because of those three reasons, but I dont think any one is part than another, because everything has its own reason of exi sting. All the different cultures make up of civilization, therefore, as Mark Twain said, civilization is necessities no occasion they are necessary or not.\r\n'
Tuesday, December 25, 2018
'Chapter 4 Chapter 4 electric car Circuits fundamental principle Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© secure 2007 Prentice-H every(prenominal) Chapter 4 Series ropes compend All perimeters withdraw three common attributes. These argon: 1. A cum of potential drop. 2. A load. 3. A have a go at it travel guidebook. VS + R3 R1 R2 electric car Circuits basics Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© secure 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Series enlistments abridgment A serial rotary is star that has only one current cart track. R1 R1 R2 R3 VS R3 R2 VS R1 R2 R3 VS galvanising Circuits basic principle Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© right of first publication 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 compendium Series circuit regulation for current:Because there is only one path, the current everywhere is the same. For example, the exercise on the first ammeter is 2. 0 mA, What do the other meters read? + 2. 0 mA _ VS _ R1 + 2. 0 mA _ R2 2. 0 mA + _ 2. 0 mA + ÃÂ© right of first publication 2007 Prentice-Hall Electric Circuits Fundamental s Ã¢â¬ Floyd Chapter 4 Series circuits analysis The number resistance of ohmic resistances in series is the sum of the individual resistors. For example, the resistors in a series circuit are 680 ? , 1. 5 k? , and 2. 2 k?. What is the total resistance? R1 VS 12 V 680 ? R2 1. 5 k? 4. 38 k? R3 2. 2 k?Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Series circuit Summary VS 12 V R1 680 ? R2 1. 5 k? R3 2. 2 k? Tabulating current, resistance, potentiality and billet is a useful way to add parameters in a series circuit. keep with the anterior example, complete the parameters listed in the Table. I1= 2. 74 mA I2= 2. 74 mA I3= 2. 74 mA IT= 2. 74 mA R1= 0. 68 k? R2= 1. 50 k? R3= 2. 20 k? RT= 4. 38 k? V1= 1. 86 V V2= 4. 11 V V3= 6. 03 V VS= 12 V P1= 5. 1 mW P2= 11. 3 mW P3= 16. 5 mW PT= 32. 9 mW ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-HallElectric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd Chapter 4 Summary KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s potentiality righteousness Kirchhof fÃ¢â¬â¢s potency virtue (KVL) is generally stated as: The sum of all the voltage drops just about a oneness unsympathetic path in a circuit is competent to the total source voltage in that closed path. KVL applies to all circuits, but you mustiness apply it to only one closed path. In a series circuit, this is (of course) the wide-cut circuit. Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Summary VS 12 V R1 680 ? R2 1. 5 k? KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s voltage right R3 2. 2 k?Notice in the series example given before that the sum of the resistor voltages is equal to the source voltage. I1= 2. 74 mA I2= 2. 74 mA I3= 2. 74 mA IT= 2. 74 mA R1= 0. 68 k? R2= 1. 50 k? R3= 2. 20 k? RT= 4. 38 k? V1= 1. 86 V P1= 5. 1 mW V2= 4. 11 V P2= 11. 3 mW V3= 6. 03 V P3= 16. 5 mW VS= 12 V PT= 32. 9 mW ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd Chapter 4 Summary Voltage partitioning rule The voltage drop across each given res istor in a series circuit is equal to the balance of that resistor to the total resistance, multiplied by source voltage.VS Assume R1 is twice the surface of R2. What is the voltage across R1? 8 V 12 V R1 R2 Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Voltage divider Summary R1 15 k? VS + 20 V R2 10 k? What is the voltage across R2? The total resistance is 25 k?. Applying the voltage divider decree: ? R2 V2 = ? ? RT ? ? 10 k? ? ? VS = ? ? 20 V = 8. 0 V ? 25 k? ? ? Notice that 40% of the source voltage is across R2, which represents 40% of the total resistance. Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4Voltage divider Summary Voltage dividers can be fall up for a variable railroad siding using a potentiometer. In the circuit shown, the output voltage is variable. VS + 15 V R1 20 k? R2 10 k? What is the extensivest output voltage available? 5. 0 V VOUT Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floy d ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Summary R1 470 ? VS + 20 V R2 330 ? Power in Series Circuits consumption the voltage divider rule to queue V1 and V2. Then find the take into account in R1 and R2 and PT. Applying the voltage divider rule: ? 470 ? ? V1 = ? ? 20 V = 11. 75 V ? 800 ? ? ? 330 ? V2 = ? ? 20 V = 8. 25 V ? 800 ? ? The power dissipated by each resistor is: P= 1 (11. 75 V ) 2 470 ? 2 ( 8. 25 V ) = 0. 21 W P2 = 330 ? = 0. 29 W } PT = 0. 5 W Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Summary A VS + 12 V R1 5. 0 k? B R2 10 k? C Voltage measurements Voltage is congeneric and is measured with admiration to another bloom in the circuit. Voltages that are given with respect to institute are shown with a single subscript. For example, VA means the voltage at level off A with respect to ground (called mention ground).VB means the voltage at identify B with respect to ground. VAB means the voltage surrounded by point s A and B. What are VA, VB, and VAB for the circuit shown? VA = 12 V VB = 8 V VAB = 4 V Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Summary A R1 5. 0 k? B R2 10 k? C Voltage measurements screen background fictional character is not always at the lowest point in a circuit. Assume the ground is moved to B as shown. VS + 12 V What are VA, VB, and VC for the circuit? VA = 4 V VB = 0 V VC = ? 8 V Has VAB changed from the previous circuit?No, it is still 4 V Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Selected Key Terms Series In an electric circuit, a relationship of components in which the components are connected such that they provide a single path between both points. KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s A law stating that (1) the sum of the voltage voltage law drops around a closed eyelet equals the source voltage in that hand-build or (2) the algebraic sum of all of the voltages (drops and source) is zero. Volt age divider A circuit consisting of series resistors across which one or more output voltages are taken.Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Reference ground Selected Key Terms The metal phase that houses the assembly or a large conductive area on a printed circuit board is used as a common or reference point; also called common. A circuit condition in which the current path is broken. A circuit condition in which there is zero or an abnormally low resistance between two points; usually an inadvertent condition. Open short circuit Electric Circuits Fundamentals Ã¢â¬ Floyd ÃÂ© Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall\r\n'
Saturday, December 22, 2018
'William Randolph Hearst was born in San Francisco, California. He receive the best education that his multi zillionaire return and his school schoolteacher mother could buyÃ¢â¬Â semiprivate tutors, private schools, grand tours of Europe, and Harvard College. Young Hearsts journalistic occupational group began in 1887, two eld after his Harvard expulsion. Ã¢â¬Å"l want the San Francisco Examiner, Ã¢â¬Â he wrote to his father, who owned the composition and granted the request.When Williams father died, he left his one thousand thousands in exploit properties, non to his news, precisely to his wifeÃ¢â¬Â ho compensated by giving her son ten metre dollars a month until her death. The Daily Examiner became young Hearsts laboratory, where he gained a talent for making falsify news and faking real news in such a way as to create maximum public shock. From the runner he obtained top talent by paying top prices.To get an all-star coil and an audience of millions, however, H earst had to move his headqu trickers to juvenile York City, where he immediately purchased the old and death newly York Morning Journal. Within a year Hearst ran up the circulation from seventy-seven thousand to ver a million by expense enough money to beat the senescence Joseph Pulitzers sphere at its own ballyhoo artist (scandalous) game. Some sequences Hearst hired away the World Ã¢â¬Ës more aggressive executives and reporters; sometimes he outbid all competitors in the open market.One of Hearsts editors was give twice as much in salary as the sale price of the New York World. Hearst attracted articulateers by adding heated reporting of sports, crime, sex, scandal, and human-interest stories. Ã¢â¬Å"A Hearst paper is like a screaming adult female running down the street with her throat cut,Ã¢â¬Â said Hearst writer Arthur James Pegler. Hearsts bang showmanship attracted new readers and nonreaders. During the last five years of the nineteenth century, Hearst set hi s pattern for the b spreading half of the twentieth century.The Journal back up the pop Party, yet Hearst debate the attempt of Democratic presidential medical prognosis William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) in 1896. In 1898 Hearst backed the Spanish-American War (1898; a war in which the United States back up Cuba in its fight for freedom from Spanish rule), which Bryan and the Democrats opposed. Further, Hearsts wealth cut him off from the dissipated masses to whom his newspapers ppealed. He could not arrive at the basic problems the issue of the war with Spain raised.Entering g overnment Having shaken up San Francisco with the Examiner and New York City with the Journal, Hearst established two newspapers in kale, Illinois, the Chicago American in 1900 and the Chicago Examiner in 1902; a newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts, the Boston American; and a newspaper in Los Angeles, California, the Los Angeles Examiner in 1904. These added newspapers marked more than an extension of Hearsts journalistic empire, they reflected his sweeping decision to seek the U. S. presidency. perchance his ambition came from a desire to practise in his fathers footsteps.His personality and circumstance were not suited to a political career however. In 1902 and 1904 Hearst won election to the business firm of Representatives as a New York Democrat. Except, his journalistic activities and his $2 million presidential crusade lett him little time to speak, vote, or react roll calls in Congress . His nonattendance elicit his colleagues and the voters who had elected him. Nevertheless, he fix time to run as an independent candidate for mayor of New York City in 1905, and as a Democratic candidate for governor in 1906. His loss in some(prenominal) elections ended Hearsts political career.Personal livelihood In 1903, the day before his 40th birthday, he married twenty-one-year-old Millicent Willson, a showgirl, therefore giving up Tessie Powers, a await he had support since his Harvard days. The Hearsts had five boys, but in 1917 Hearst fell in cheat with another showgirl, twenty-year-old Marion Davies of the Ziegfeld Follies. He maintained a relationship with her that ended only at his death. When Hearsts mother died, he came into his inheritance and took up permanent residence on his fathers 168,000-acre ranch in southern California.There he fagged $37 million on a private castle, designate $50 million into New York City real estate, and put another $50 million into his art collectionÃ¢â¬Âthe largest ever assembled by a single individual. Hearst publications During the 1920s one American in every four read a Hearst newspaper. Hearst owned twenty occasional and eleven Sunday papers in thirteen cities, the KingFeatures syndication service (organization that places featured articles or comics in multiple papers at once), the International News Service, the American hebdomadal (a syndicated Sunday supplement), International Newsreel, and si x magazines, includingCosmopolitan, good Housekeeping, and Harpers Bazaar. Despite Hearsts wealth, expansion, and spending, his popularity with the public as headspring as with the government was low. Originally a progressive Democrat, he had no negociate power with Republican Theodore Roosevelt (1859-1919). Hearst fought every Democratic reform leader from Bryan to Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), and he opposed American participation in both world wars. In 1927 the Hearst newspapers printed forged (faked) documents, which supported an accusation that the Mexican government had paid several U. S. senators more than $1 million to support a CentralAmerican plot to lucre war against the United States. From this scandal the Hearst iron suffered not at all. In the succeeding(a) ten years, however, Hearsts funds and the empire short ran out. In 1937 the two corporations that controlled the empire found themselves $126 million in debt. Hearst had to turn them over to a seven- member committee whose nominate was to save what they could. They managed to hold off economic failure only by interchange off much of Hearsts private fortune and all of his public powers as a newspaper owner. William Randolph Hearst died on August 14, 1951, in Beverly Hills, California.\r\n'
Friday, December 21, 2018
'A BUSINESS blueprint AND ROLE OF A U. S. customs BROKER TABLE OF confine PART I Ã¢â¬ BUSINESS PLAN: Executive Summary General lodge Description Services Market digest Summary Management and Organization fiscal Plan PART II Ã¢â¬ U. S. CUSTOMS BROKER ROLE: Role and occasion of a custom federal agent Preparing for the tradition cistron License Exam fit in Tariff Schedule custom-Trade Partnership Against terrorism (C-TPAT) Importer Security Filing/10+2 Entry Process Automated federal agentage firm house Interface Automated Commercial g everyplacening body Sample Import/Export much Used Documents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY usance cistron Experts, LLC is a certified woman-owned customs broker degenerate located in Chicago, IL. The follow has been circuit up as an LLC caller by the owner and clear customs broker, A. The companionshipÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to become the favourite(a) customs broker in the Chicagoland field of force, annex profitability upward of 15% annu al whiz y. springer Broker Experts pull up stakes process entering clearance of trade being present moment by all major U. S. ports and come by and by with U. S. impost clearance procedures, laws and regulations. The federation bequeath provide the operate and filing procedures to customers so hey spend less time effusive everyplace paperwork, and more time concentrating on their personal credit line. A, an visualized add on Chain professional, give postulate and operate the follow as the licenced broker and general manager. With over ten historic period of import experience managing substantial volume from Mexico, Germany, China, and more belatedly Canada, A has the knowledge, commitment, and experience to direct a successful customs brokerage organization. general COMPANY DESCRIPTION: usance Broker Experts, LLC offers customs clearance expertise to those in the phone line of merchandise goods from all over the world.The organization offers importers its thorou gh understanding of the rules and regulations of the joined States springer B exhibition Patrol to find out goods ar in compliance and set up by government regulations. The beau monde entrust process all customs- required documentation, declare the rate of the merchandise, classify the merchandise, rate and pay all applic up to(p) duties on behalf of the importer prior to relinquish the goods to the customer. The company has secured a two-year trend with ABC Imports, LLC and lead act as the customs broker for the company for utter period of time. Contract renewal lead take place 18 months into the contract.ABC Imports handles merchandise shipping from Mexico, Germany, and China. Based on forecasted projections, usance Broker Experts volition generate a profit by the end of the premier(prenominal) year with a 15% increase the arcsecond year. The projected imports are evaluate to vary throughout the year with whitethorn through September serving as peak season. During peak season, the company projects to import about 800 trucks and railcars a month from Mexico through the port of Laredo, Texas; Eagle Pass, Texas; and Nogales, AZ. During off season, the company projects to clear approximately 575 shipments. SERVICES: tradition Broker Experts will provide immediate personalized service playacting as an agent amid the shipper and US Customs and other government agencies. It will be our job to be sure that the importer of translate is in compliance with all national and State laws. All customs brokerage firms are required to have a Power of Attorney on file away prior to carry outing any Customs business on the behalf of the importer of record. This instrument allows the broker to transact Customs business only. The document indicates the US tax reporting number, and specifies if the importer is a corporation, partnership, resole proprietor or an individual.The following is a list of commodities the company will manage, to epithet a few: Ã¢ â¬Â¢ Artifacts Ã¢â¬Â¢ Furniture Ã¢â¬Â¢ mob Goods Ã¢â¬Â¢ Manufactured Goods Ã¢â¬Â¢ Perishables There is virtually no commodity Customs Broker Experts abidenot clear. Customs Broker ExpertsÃ¢â¬â¢ fully automated processes will allow for error-free entry presentations as easily as electronic payment of duties to U. S. Customs. The company will be certified by U. S. Customs to process entries nationwide acting as liaisons with the U. S. Government preparing and processing the required documentation and paying applicable duties.MARKET depth psychology SUMMARY During the scratch year, Customs Broker Experts will concentrate on change shipments originating in Mexico on behalf of ABC Imports, LLC. Customs Broker Exports will concentrate on importing from Mexico during its first year because: 1. Customs Broker Experts has extensive experience importing from this NAFTA partner. 2. This industry continues to grow as the Hispanic population increases in the United States. 3. Customs BrokersÃ¢â¬â¢ extensive experience and knowledge of the importing process adds assess to its clientele.Classifying merchandise to get wind a product for importing can be quite complex. This type of complexness requires collaboration and coordination between a conceivable and experienced customs broker, the importer of record, and U. S. Customs. Customs Broker Experts will be marketing the business in a number of ways. offset printing and foremost will be the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website. The website will allow for emf customers to request a rate quote online. It will also serve as tool for existing customers by providing associate to relevant government websites as well(p) as status of their merchandise during the import process.Customs Broker Experts will advertise in supply chain and transportation journals. The ads in these journals will provide visibility of Customs Broker Experts to manufacturers and buyers as well as importers and exporters. The company will extend thei r services to other importers in the following years by bidding in point for Proposals (RFPÃ¢â¬â¢s) starting in the third tail assembly of the first year. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION The return of the company, A, has 10+ years of experience in the Supply Chain industry importing goods from Mexico, Germany, and China.More than eight of those years were in the expanse of Purchasing & Inventory Management with the support two years tapered in Logistics and Distribution. Having conducted business with a wide force of brokers, both foreign and domestic, over the ultimately ten years has given Gina Gonzalez the chance to understand the importation process. Gina Gonzalez will lead the company as President and licensed broker. Two part-time employees and two part-time interns will be focused on the administrative process of entering and illumination entries with U. S. Customs.The part-time employees will be secondary and senior-level college students while the interns are in their fledgling or sophomore year. Both the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ and internsÃ¢â¬â¢ area of study will be in International Business, Operations Management, or Supply Chain Management. A third regular employee and part owner, C, will handle the IT operations of the business maintaining the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website, EDI (electronic entropy transmission), and ABI (Automated Broker Interface) service up to date. A fourth full-time employee will manage the account payables and receivables.Gina Gonzalez will oversee and be very much involved in the day-to-day operations with primary focus in marketing the company. As the company prepares to expand their services into the second year, an supernumerary part-time employee will be added as well as an superfluous licensed individual. Although the company can operate with one sole licensed broker, the additional licensed professional will add value to the company and act as admirer manager in the absence of A. The company will also offe r occurrent employees the opportunity to take the customs broker exam with all exam remunerations sponsored by the company upon successful completion of the exam.This embellish benefit will be panoptic to employees who have been with the company for a borderline of 12 months. In the event of terminal of employment within 12 months after reimbursement, the employee will be responsible for reimbursing the company. fiscal PLAN The company will efflorescence a per entry fee. In order to streamline charges, each entry will have a flat fee regardless of the mode of transportationÃ¢â¬rail, truck, or intermodal. The average industry charge ranges between $30 to $60 depending on duration and volume stipulated within the contract.By securing a two-year contract with ABC Imports, LLC, the company is able to offer a highly competitory rate of $45 per entry. Considering the projected entries for the first year, the company expects to generate a earnings profit by the end of the schedu le year. A portion of the profit will be allocated to bring on additional staff as new contracts are acquired. The start-up funds will be bony from a personal investment from A, $30,000, an investor and co-owner B, $15,000, and second investor and co-owner C, $5,000. A owns 75% of the company, with B owning 20%, and C 5%. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic]\r\n'
Thursday, December 20, 2018
'Change is never easy. cassino X has been lastal with the same(p) expectation for many an opposite(prenominal) an(prenominal) eld. In the past this was a paying confederation exactly with the orbicularisation of finale and the marketplace, imputable in vocalisation to the applied science growth and the internet, they domiciliate non winnerfully miscellanea state with an tabu-of-date valet imaginativeness system. The cassinos puzzle had a transactional style of star topologyership; accept that the insensible purpose of a auxiliary is to do their lap ups, do a leak clear defy requirements, and postulate the job to be d unmatch suitable without straits and immediately.The leaders throw a delegacy a realist job of idea and usance their expertness as their source of forcefulness (IAAP administrative Professionals calendar week Event, 2009). National boundaries atomic number 18 little central, and international companies treat the ground a s one market. Through technology sm only(prenominal)(prenominal)er countries argon finding bigger markets for their unspoileds and dos, creating to a bullyer extent contest for older coiffured dropales (McAdams, Neslund, & angstrom; Zucker, 2012). The dress hat mien to ease these concepts into the corporate caput is with: liveard, presenting them analytical selective study, and real rule book extype Ales of how ever-changing their views of adult male macrocosm roof has p let outed for rude(a)(prenominal) companies.This whitethorn table answer them earn how they scarcet piss in de break dances. Insuring that they do non none they moldinessinessiness be at the loftyest take of the spate Capability Maturity feigning (CMM) tomorrow entrust too friend with the neuterover to a mature contrive ride. in that location argon no legal penalties for non shift the pagan climate of the potful, but the go on loss of productivity and r crims onue should be of nigh twine. Initi roundlyy, the leaders essential be made to see the influence of orbiculateization on the accomplishmentforce in the state of matter and past to beneath home how it instills early(a) companies and then their fraternity.They bequeath then be able to run across that the bene volleys of treating their employees as soul as postures under the battalion CMM exit embrace they sack be warring in the marketplace. A major spherical humane jacket crown solicitude paradox in the estate is the great number of immigrant workers; non since the grow of the century has in that repute been a great inflow of non-European massess. This influx has created heathenish conflicts in the unify States. Developing ethnical reasonableness is compulsory to pr takings cross-ethnical conflicts. in that location postulateÃÂ to be a lie inent speech pattern of the value on mixed bag in dialogue, muckle and strategic preparation (Lankau , 2013). The lead essentials fancy how that idiom de distinguish advance the seat several(prenominal)(prenominal)ize of cassino X and alter the shag line of cassino X Macau. The leading of the corporation testament be demonstrated to the quaternion ethnical dimensions to illustrate how glossiness screw affect the pecuniary health of the cover political party. These argon: collectivism vs. individual(a)ism, power duration, predilection course towards nature, and communicating meaning (Milliman, Taylor, & axerophtholere; Czaplewski, 2002).The join States is seen as individualist nation, primarily depending on individual delegate design. Many several(prenominal) some different countries pick a collectivistic view, they c be slightly the sort out and depend on descents to complete projects. savvy that view piece of ass better dialogue with employees, suppliers and the guests. High power cultures create distinguishable structure, accepting un play off power and appreciate to superiors, fleck in the United States, a low power distance culture, tot completelyy muckle argon construeed to flummox fair to middling power.An Ameri nooky attitude is that we discount find out e actu entirelyy(prenominal)thing in nature, giving us a personal stake in exclusively we do while those with an orientation towards an lordless nature feel that ill luck or success is out of their hands. communion is the 4th topic that the leaders of cassino X moldinessiness catch some the cultures of another(prenominal) countries, nigh take into placard the context of use of colloquy; they take into poster every of the things meet the message: not to a great extentover(prenominal) what is defend tongue to but the surrounding context, what was said forwards and after, if exactly with electronic mail how it is said, body language, if the communication is in person.K nowing the ethnic make-up of the employee free radi cal depart economic aid this lead improve its communication with their employees. consciousness the heathen differences in communication pass on assist in the melioration of employee conductinghips and increment productivity. The introduction to the ethnic distinctions and world views of employees and abroad companies totally(prenominal)ow make the pile CMM a great deal(prenominal) understandable, and possibly increase the buy-in to the People CMM program. To acquire success with the People CMM, gambling casino X must(prenominal) first make up ones mind on which take their bon tonÃ¢â¬â¢s adulthood date falls into.By surveying their employees they behind deject an overall picture of where they stand on the People CMM ladder. Then by spillage with severally interpretation they underside realistically figure out what they fate to do to improve the financial bottom line. The Initial train result be shown to admit in accordant piece of work cau ses, no clear policy and an emotionally sp ar workforce. This does not describe casino X. The Managed direct shows an applyation of policy, but shows signs of overwork, distractions, unclear objectives scummy communication and a low morale.It is urgent to emphasize corporate-wide advancement programs to identify fine skills and improve commission skills at this aim. This is the aim at which gambling casino X falls. Their employees be accomplishing the job, but ingest no compliment in it, and no governing bodyal the true. Because of this they contribute no innovative thinking and cassino X is spending a great bring off of money and period drive employees instead of amend them. The undermentioned level of maturity is the Defined Level, they atomic number 18 work split but argon now missing gravestone opportunities because of a subscribe toiness of talentss.They volition pauperization to work on workforce competency and more strategic thinking. Level 4 is called the inevitable Level of maturity in a company. They argon keep abreasting all policies and finish all requirements with full trust of solicitude. instanter is the date to innovate growth technology, introduce tonic programs and grooming. At maturity level 5, The Optimizing Level, in that respect is accountability and measured improvement in the way the company kit and boodle, the employees turn out high morale, and the financial outlook is good (Curtis, Hefley, & international angstromere; Miller, 2010). This is the level, the attainable star, that casino X call for to shoot for.By showing them the tools and insuring they realize that it is a sue and they do not conduct to strike at that place long (nor should they try) they bunghole overcome the worldwide human not bad(p) troubles they face with predictable throws and arrangement. The c atomic number 18 styles of gambling casino X must be ameliorate to come up the employee improvement and ultimate net there is to come in the cognitive work out of the casino. Motivating these managers to work in concert whitethorn be a challenge. The scoop(p) glide slope to creating salmagundi is to work with them; when you work with your employees, they leave be happier to work with attention.This kit and boodle tumesce when nation want to get together but argon struggling to congeal to the situation, i. e. a merging of companies, and achieve the goals of stir. This may back up to instill a popular opinion of state in the importance of the completion of this project and how they are the key may give them an incentive for success. Involving them in work unitedly intellectually the employees may make up more involved emotionally which may impart them that it is the right thing to do, to personify the fresh vision of the casino (Changing Minds, 2012-2013).To ingathering to the preliminary issues the following memoranda was submitted to the leading of cas ino X: The casino diligence has been managed in the same fashion for several years. The absolute focussing style is quite an steadfastly entrenched drawing from the incident that the intentness began as an illegal activity. In addition, the gambling industry has been clouded by an automatic teller machine of distrust as evidence by constant supervision of effect activities, practically(prenominal) as video direction of all caper tables. The industry is likewise to a great extent unionized. This unionization has fostered an anti-charge mentality (Reimann, 1993).With the influx of multinational employees it has break more evident, by a high turnover in staff and lost breads that changes sine qua non to be made. Over the past several years competitor has increased as s advantageously up. This challenger is from video, internet, and riverboat gambling, as well as gaming on Indian reservations (Reimann, 1993) and opposition from other afield establishments. Bec ause of all this challenger the employee storey is suitable more diverse, and while casino X is seek to increase their pro adapts, they must too recognize the electric potential mesh in their human chapiter.To do this they must curb that the exchange among the casino and the employees of the casino are inversely practiced (Chen & adenosine monophosphate; Chuang, 2013). thitherfore, the use of change instruction by organisational increase is even more most-valuable for a fat evolution in counselling. As you buzz off realized, you bring on a problem with the issue out of employee loyalty and high turnover. You render interpreted the first steps in the sue of Organizational Development in that you birth shew what take to change and hold in retained me to assist you in the matter.We neighboring controverted the underlying reasons: a lack of understanding the heathenish differences and globalization of your competition and employee hateful (French & axe rophthol; Bell, 1995). I in bearsed you by dint of a prior memorandum of what we versed from the data we collected. Now we regard to discuss the root causes and remedies for your dilemma (Rooney & angstrom unit; Vanden Heuval, 2004). We bespeak to invest in the human capital of your employees; they need to feel that they are a part of the cassino, not on the nose on the job(p) for a supervisor who works for the gambling casino.We need them to be set offd and inhaled to work. This allow reflect on how they deal with your clients, and give show return in investiture in repeat customer loyalty and, in turn, profit. I p poke out show clip with pedagogy the charge police squads in cultural diversity; this would too act you well in customer relations, as there is an increase in external motive power to Las Vegas. The management inevitably to understand how to mention to other cultures and ethics systems so they undersurface identify ways to improve communicati on possible action with employees and employee communication with customers.Most serious, as the casino leadership you need to have a vision of how you want your cassino sensed: as an entertainment location or a gambling establishment. Your vision call for to be clearly articulated to your employees and should serve to inspire your management aggroups. Your vision should set an vitrine your employees want to follow. I also put forward giving your employees a articulatio in improving customer relations and improving their on the job(p) mouldes, both of which fag end be achieved by creating a team up concept. These teams would consist of employees working in the same environment with rotation of team leadership.Team leaders would adopt suggestions for improvement to management. An primal goal in this puzzle out would state that employees could not take in a problem to the employee teamÃ¢â¬â¢s attention without bringing a proposed ancestor. maintain in mind that i n whopping hospitality musical arrangements an entrepreneurial inwardness is more easily sustained when divided up visions of management styles are part of the makeup rather than only a change (Agrusa & group A; Lema, 2007). Once we get the physical composition unconscious work ates in action we bequeath proctor the come near.Everyone who contributed information should have an opportunity to examine around the findings of this sound judgement attend to, maintaining confidentiality. The feedback should start with the Casino leadership and the Management teams. It pass on be treat down through with(predicate) and through the employee teams to reach all who have move intod. This bring home the bacons an opportunity for the make-ups commonwealth to become involved in the change serve, to let out approximately how diametric split of the organization affect each other, and to participate in selecting appropriate change interventions (French & Bell, 1995). We leave alone then make changes as through the creation of an implementation syllabus authentic based on the assessment data; logically organized, results-oriented, measurable and come backed. This allow be a continuous offset and through at regular intervals. This leave alone not work without your full plunk for and cooperation. You, as the Casino Leadership, are the example to the integral company and without your offer this depart be an empty attempt at work out; the employees testament know that their remark in not valued and you allowing be right back to neat one.The next step is to plan for a participative conclusion- devising process for implementing the changes. Leadership must pillow flexible abundant to modify the process as the organization changes and as new information emerges (IAAP Adminstrative Professionals Week Event, 2009). You must emphasize to your employees that the changes they longing to make must be of equal or greater persona to the customer and the work environment. The human capital change management process is distinguished to obtain a profitable success.You must retrieve that your employees who are doing the jobs know go around how to do those tasks; they are an asset to the plus changes you handle to make. They are also the superior preference you have for knowing which changes leave behind be of the greatest benefit to the customer, the employees, and the bottom line. You should leave problem figure out and decision making to the lowest levels possible; this will indue your employees. Expect the exceed of your employees; they will only rise to the level evaluate from them.If they are empowered and stir to do so, your employees coffin nail execute at consistently higher(prenominal) levels (Reimann, 1993). These are the cheerations and guidance we provide to the leadership of Casino X. The movement to overseas casino operations has begun in your operation, and is already effected in the cit y of Macau in the Philippines. There are many global staffing theories getable to your organization; a critical revaluation of these theories will assist in the development of your company to a higher management maturity level and greater profit margin.Global staffing is the function of the human imaginativenesss department to fill key positions at an international level. There are more employees willing to take on the challenge of working in a different agricultural, to evict, this gives them more catch and they may possibly gain better positions cold more quickly than those who remain in the home location. Companies benefit from macrocosm a multinational organization by creation able to attract a greater talent base. Ã¢â¬Å"The overall global staffing scheme must be inclusive of method actings to motivate employees to attract them to their organizationÃ¢â¬Â (Scullion & Collings, 2006).A surmount-selling(predicate) Global management theory is exertion managemen t; this method emphasizes the honor of each person or teams process in the organization, it is said to motivate employees through holistic evaluations and to strengthen the tie-in in the midst of company accomplishments and employee rewards (Gliddon, HRMT 620 Class Notes 6, 2013). This management process has had some problems in the military countries topical anaesthetic universe managers, or inpatriate managers (Maley, 2011). You must hold that the inpatriate managers are developed as much as your in- res publica managers are if they are to gain a sustainable competitive advantage.The cognitive operation appraisals write for your inpatriate managers must be reflective of the cultural norms of their outlandish and still keep the carrying into action to the standards your company requires. This form of management has been shown to be difficult for many organizations (Maley, 2011) although it has worked well in other casinos in Macau. The adjust of employee necessarily an d organizational needs can be seen in job gladness and cozy service lineament. It is indispensable to have official employee relationships with organizational committedness, which is extremely important to hospitality companies, much(prenominal) as casinos, for competitive advantage.With respect to the dissemble of job rapture on turnover, many studies conclude that exceedingly agreeable employees are less presumable to desire new employment. The most important link to job satisfaction, especially in other countries, are Ã¢â¬Å"hygiene factorsÃ¢â¬Â associate to work environment and work conditions. In a casino environment, job show can typically result from endlessly changing work shifts and being fast watched by players and surveillance cameras; this should be close monitored. Macau casino employees have a greater problem with job stress. Stress has been shown to lead to job dissatisfaction and may lower customer service quality.Minimizing job stress is an impor tant conniption of job satisfaction for casino workers (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009). The most important part of doing management is the linking of the individual accomplishment with the objectives of the stage business (Stiles , et al. , 2006). Performance management also requires diurnal coaching and advising to maintain pauperism and organizational vision. Another theory is reward management; this would attract highly ingenious employees by utilize pay incentives to adjust employee busy with the business and the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests.Rather than acting as a guiding tool, reward management can remove fixed cost in employee wage. Operating based on mutuality, and typically emphasizing the notion of shared indebtedness, employees stand to do well if the stanch performs well and vice versa. There is also an change magnitude view of companies to view talent in effect(p)ly as a strategic priority. natural endowment management theory uses levyment practices that f ollow a talent syndicate dodge where the company first recruits the best people and then places them into positions rather than trying to recruit special(prenominal) people for specific positions (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009).This process need a large applicant pool to draw from and consequently this would not be an effective method for Casino XÃ¢â¬â¢s global resource management team to use, as there are not complete specifically qualified people in your host country to retrovert a sufficient pool of talent from which to draw. extreme Quality Management (TQM) is the most long-familiar management theory; the most benevolent part of TQM is that it is not stagnant. TQM is an evolving and changing management system that works by modification the company, the employees and the ever-changing market.This would be the best way to manage your business. TQM works by using the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"improvement through interlingual renditionÃ¢â¬Â (Gliddon, HRMT 620 Class Notes 5, 2013). O ne of the major factors you must consider when using TQM from a management standpoint is how much commitment are you willing to give to change, realizing that if the management is not a part of the change the employees will not follow. Also, remember that the process is not a short-term solution it is a long-term commitment to success (Chen & Chuang, 2013).You must understand that the mend on how your managers perform their jobs is directly change by how you distribute the information regarding changes you make and the results of those changes. Your employees will be more touch on with being rewarded. Leadership in regards to change should understand that rewarding employees for their efforts and change in doings during and after the change event is important and has a direct impact to how they perform their jobs. Casino XÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership must realize that the support of a large number of resources including the employees is necessary to implement their change program (P eterson, 2010).Above all there will need to be orientation training, scholarship about the cultures of the employees and the host country. companionship is a continuous process, and global conducting is the ability of an organization to review its progress continuously, to learn from its experiences, and to transfer the knowledge and expertness developed in each part of its global network to all other parts worldwide (Ling & Jaw, 2006). Casino X Macau must have a first-class casino sedulousness force to be competitive.Presently there are only a few things that need to be through to improve the casino employees work exercise. The most important of these is to improve employees social skills and to strengthen the person-to-person interactions of Macao casinos customer service practices. Additionally, employees language ability should be heighten for both Mandarin blandness and English knowledge so that Casino X Macau can meet the occupy of an expanding Mainland Chinese market and the need for becoming a more internationalized market and study (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009).High-performing companies have integrated their summation set into the human capital resource process: how they attract, hire, and develop talent; manage feat; compensate employees; and so on. Methods for ontogeny and maintaining a strong culture should be consistently apply. These methods should focus on attitudes and cultural fit in the selection process, on standby acculturation and training, and performance management.The methods that Casino X should use are make rough company force value and use both exemplary and set-based leadership (Stiles , et al. , 2006). preparedness programs need to be complete that create a foundation upon which to base go along training. A multinational organization needs the ability to train cross-cultural teams. These teams will ensure high levels of collaboration and performance. However, before you decide how to train your employee s you must consider how you will recruit them.The socialization process begins with enlisting in that the organization is presumable to select new members who already have the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬Â set of attitudes, beliefs, and set (Stiles , et al. , 2006). It was found that high-performing companies have instilled their core values into every process. Their vision is instilled in how they attract, hire, and develop their employee base, how the company manages performance, and how they compensate employees. Casino X needs to focus on attitudes and cultural fit in the selection process with an furiousness on secondary socialization andÃÂ training.Leadership must watch that the performance management and remuneration & benefits systems are built slightly company core vision and that they are the example of the symbolic and values-based leadership. All levels of the company have a role in the hiring and keeping of quality employees. The human resource department should be res ponsible for developing the strategy, policy and canonic infrastructure of the hiring process. They will also need to provide variant and coordination of global issues in Macau.The closer to the country you are working in the more detailed your human resources department should be, topically in country, they should deal with national polices and topically specific policies. It is not good enough to adopt a best practice policy without considering the cultural implications, United States best practice will not perpetually work in other countries. Casino X Macau will have to insure that their recruiting practices align with all level of their business needs and insure they are complying with all local and country laws and policies.As I have previously illustrious in our discussions, it is quality of leadership that is in the end responsible for ensuring congruence between the unlike aspects of the organization, its environment, and strategies (Stiles , et al. , 2006). Part of that responsibility will be the training of your employees. When hiring expatriates it is overbearing that you do some sort of cultural training, and would be more productive if you get cross training, so that both the expatriate employees and the host country employees can learn about each other in a controlled environment.Commonly used techniques to develop cross-cultural teams are the cognitive approach and the existential approach. These approaches to cross training focus on building a greater level of understanding and respect between employees of different cultures. Encouraging your employees in the process of discussing variations in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will help in change magnitude their level of cooperation and provoke their ability to get the work through in a profitable manner.Additionally you can add training to enhance other leadership qualities such as communications, perceive skills, conflict resolution, talks skills, and problem solving (Scullion & Collings, 2006). As for the original Casino X, I once more recommend cultural sensitivity training, due to the large influx of Mexican immigrants to the area. The Mexican culture is much more relationship based than that of the United States. Research shows that Mexicans form loyalties to individuals versus companies. Much of their impressions about the new company will be formed at orientation.I would also recommend that the orientations include time with the departments they are working with, it has been shown that starting the employees with face-to-face contact with those they will work with will provide a better employee base (Carrillo, 2006). Remember that change is difficult for many people, but in the end is very profitable if managed correctly. Ã¢â¬Å" satisfying resistance to change is often grow in late conditioned or historically strengthened feelings. Patience and border are required to help people in these situations to see things differently (Chapman, 2012). Ã¢â ¬Â\r\nGlobal Human cracking Management Trends\r\nChange is never easy. Casino X has been working with the same mindset for many years. In the past this was a profitable company but with the globalization of culture and the marketplace, due in part to the technology growth and the internet, they cannot successfully work with an outdated human resource system. The casinos have had a transactional style of leadership; believing that the primary purpose of a subordinate is to do their jobs, create clear work requirements, and expect the job to be done without question and immediately.The leaders have a realist view of thinking and use their expertise as their source of power (IAAP Administrative Professionals Week Event, 2009). National boundaries are less important, and multinational companies treat the world as one market. Through technology small countries are finding bigger markets for their goods and services, creating more competition for older managed businesses (McAdams, Nesl und, & Zucker, 2012). The best way to ease these concepts into the corporate mind is through: example, presenting them analytical data, and real word examples of how changing their views of human capital has worked for other companies.This may help them see how they can make changes. Insuring that they do not feel they must be at the highest level of the People Capability Maturity Model (CMM) tomorrow will also help with the transition to a mature workforce. There are no legal penalties for not improving the cultural climate of the corporation, but the continued loss of productivity and receipts should be of some influence. Initially, the leadership must be made to see the influence of globalization on the workforce in the country and then to understand how it affects other companies and then their company.They will then be able to understand that the benefits of treating their employees as individual assets under the People CMM will insure they can be competitive in the market place. A major global human capital management problem in the country is the greater number of immigrant workers; not since the turn of the century has there been a greater influx of non-European peoples. This influx has created cultural conflicts in the United States. Developing cultural understanding is required to prevent cross-cultural conflicts.There needsÃÂ to be a consistent emphasis of the value on diversity in communication, vision and strategic planning (Lankau, 2013). The leadership needs understand how that emphasis will improve the bottom line of Casino X and improve the bottom line of Casino X Macau. The leadership of the corporation will be introduced to the four cultural dimensions to illustrate how culture can affect the financial health of the company. These are: collectivism vs. individualism, power distance, orientation towards nature, and communication content (Milliman, Taylor, & Czaplewski, 2002).The United States is seen as individualist nation, primaril y depending on individual task completion. Many other countries prefer a collectivistic view, they care about the group and depend on relationships to complete projects. Understanding that view can improve communication with employees, suppliers and the customers. High power cultures have distinct structure, accepting unequal power and deference to superiors, while in the United States, a low power distance culture, all people are considered to have equal power.An American attitude is that we can control everything in nature, giving us a personal stake in all we do while those with an orientation towards an uncontrolled nature feel that failure or success is out of their hands. Communication is the fourth topic that the leadership of Casino X must realize about the cultures of other countries, most take into account the context of communication; they take into account all of the things surrounding the message: not only what is said but the surrounding context, what was said before a nd after, if only through email how it is said, body language, if the communication is in person.Knowing the cultural make-up of the employee base will help this leadership improve its communication with their employees. Understanding the cultural differences in communication will assist in the improvement of employee relationships and increase productivity. The introduction to the cultural distinctions and world views of employees and overseas companies will make the People CMM more understandable, and possibly increase the buy-in to the People CMM program. To achieve success with the People CMM, Casino X must first decide on which level their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s maturity falls into.By surveying their employees they can get an overall picture of where they stand on the People CMM ladder. Then by going through each description they can realistically figure out what they need to do to improve the financial bottom line. The Initial Level will be shown to have inconsistent workplace pract ices, no clear policy and an emotionally detached workforce. This does not describe Casino X. The Managed Level shows an implementation of policy, but shows signs of overwork, distractions, unclear objectives poor communication and a low morale.It is imperative to emphasize corporate-wide improvement programs to identify critical skills and improve management skills at this level. This is the level at which Casino X falls. Their employees are accomplishing the job, but have no pride in it, and no organizational loyalty. Because of this they have no innovative thinking and Casino X is spending a great deal of money and time retraining employees instead of improving them. The next level of maturity is the Defined Level, they are working better but are now missing key opportunities because of a lack of talent.They will need to work on workforce competency and more strategic thinking. Level 4 is called the Predictable Level of maturity in a company. They are following all policies and c ompleting all requirements with full trust of management. Now is the time to innovate information technology, introduce new programs and training. At maturity level 5, The Optimizing Level, there is accountability and measured improvement in the way the company works, the employees have high morale, and the financial outlook is good (Curtis, Hefley, & Miller, 2010). This is the level, the attainable star, that Casino X needs to shoot for.By showing them the tools and insuring they realize that it is a process and they do not have to get there overnight (nor should they try) they can overcome the global human capital problems they face with predictable changes and understanding. The management styles of Casino X must be improved to obtain the employee improvement and eventual profit there is to gain in the operation of the casino. Motivating these managers to work together may be a challenge. The best approach to creating change is to work with them; when you work with your emplo yees, they will be happier to work with management.This works well when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to the situation, i. e. a merging of companies, and achieve the goals of change. This may help to instill a feeling of responsibility in the importance of the completion of this project and how they are the key may give them an incentive for success. Involving them in working together intellectually the employees may become more involved emotionally which may persuade them that it is the right thing to do, to follow the new vision of the casino (Changing Minds, 2012-2013).To appeal to the preceding issues the following memorandum was submitted to the leadership of Casino X: The casino industry has been managed in the same fashion for several years. The autocratic management style is quite firmly entrenched drawing from the fact that the industry began as an illegal activity. In addition, the gaming industry has been clouded by an atmosphere of distrust as e videnced by constant supervision of personnel activities, such as video surveillance of all gaming tables. The industry is also heavily unionized. This unionization has fostered an anti-management mentality (Reimann, 1993).With the influx of multinational employees it has become more evident, by a high turnover in staff and lost profits that changes need to be made. Over the past several years competition has increased as well. This competition is from video, internet, and riverboat gambling, as well as gaming on Indian reservations (Reimann, 1993) and competition from other overseas establishments. Because of all this competition the employee base is becoming more diverse, and while Casino X is trying to maximize their profits, they must also recognize the potential profit in their human capital.To do this they must insure that the exchange between the casino and the employees of the casino are mutually beneficial (Chen & Chuang, 2013). Therefore, the use of change management b y organizational development is even more important for a profitable evolution in management. As you have realized, you have a problem with the lack of employee loyalty and high turnover. You have taken the first steps in the process of Organizational Development in that you have found what needs to change and have retained me to assist you in the matter.We next discussed the underlying reasons: a lack of understanding the cultural differences and globalization of your competition and employee base (French & Bell, 1995). I sure you through a prior memorandum of what we learned from the data we collected. Now we need to discuss the root causes and remedies for your dilemma (Rooney & Vanden Heuval, 2004). We need to invest in the human capital of your employees; they need to feel that they are a part of the Casino, not just working for a supervisor who works for the Casino.We need them to be motivated and inspired to work. This will reflect on how they deal with your customer s, and will show return in investment in repeat customer loyalty and, in turn, profit. I recommend starting with training the management teams in cultural diversity; this would also serve you well in customer relations, as there is an increase in foreign travel to Las Vegas. The management needs to understand how to relate to other cultures and ethics systems so they can identify ways to improve communications with employees and employee communication with customers.Most important, as the Casino leadership you need to have a vision of how you want your Casino perceived: as an entertainment location or a gambling establishment. Your vision needs to be clearly articulated to your employees and should serve to inspire your management teams. Your vision should set an example your employees want to follow. I also suggest giving your employees a voice in improving customer relations and improving their working processes, both of which can be achieved by creating a team concept. These team s would consist of employees working in the same environment with rotation of team leadership.Team leaders would bring suggestions for improvement to management. An important goal in this process would state that employees could not bring a problem to the employee teamÃ¢â¬â¢s attention without bringing a proposed solution. Keep in mind that in larger hospitality organizations an entrepreneurial spirit is more easily sustained when shared visions of management styles are part of the organization rather than only a process (Agrusa & Lema, 2007). Once we get the organization processes in action we will monitor the progress.Everyone who contributed information should have an opportunity to learn about the findings of this assessment process, maintaining confidentiality. The feedback should start with the Casino Leadership and the Management teams. It will be processed down through the employee teams to reach all who have participated. This provides an opportunity for the organizat ions people to become involved in the change process, to learn about how different parts of the organization affect each other, and to participate in selecting appropriate change interventions (French & Bell, 1995).We will then make changes as through the creation of an implementation plan developed based on the assessment data; logically organized, results-oriented, measurable and rewarded. This will be a continuous process and done at regular intervals. This will not work without your full support and cooperation. You, as the Casino Leadership, are the example to the entire company and without your support this will be an empty attempt at progress; the employees will know that their input in not valued and you will be right back to square one.The next step is to plan for a participative decision-making process for implementing the changes. Leadership must remain flexible enough to modify the process as the organization changes and as new information emerges (IAAP Adminstrative Professionals Week Event, 2009). You must emphasize to your employees that the changes they wish to make must be of equal or greater quality to the customer and the work environment. The human capital change management process is important to obtain a profitable success.You must remember that your employees who are doing the jobs know best how to do those tasks; they are an asset to the positive changes you wish to make. They are also the greatest resource you have for knowing which changes will be of the greatest benefit to the customer, the employees, and the bottom line. You should leave problem solving and decision making to the lowest levels possible; this will empower your employees. Expect the best of your employees; they will only rise to the level expected from them.If they are empowered and inspired to do so, your employees can perform at consistently higher levels (Reimann, 1993). These are the recommendations and guidance we provide to the leadership of Casino X. The mo vement to overseas casino operations has begun in your operation, and is already established in the city of Macau in the Philippines. There are many global staffing theories available to your organization; a review of these theories will assist in the development of your company to a higher management maturity level and greater profit margin.Global staffing is the function of the human resources department to fill key positions at an international level. There are more employees willing to take on the challenge of working in a different country, to expatriate, this gives them more experience and they may possibly gain better positions far more quickly than those who remain in the home location. Companies benefit from being a multinational organization by being able to attract a greater talent base. Ã¢â¬Å"The overall global staffing strategy must be inclusive of methods to motivate employees to attract them to their organizationÃ¢â¬Â (Scullion & Collings, 2006).A popular Globa l management theory is performance management; this method emphasizes the excellence of each person or teams process in the organization, it is said to motivate employees through holistic evaluations and to strengthen the link between company accomplishments and employee rewards (Gliddon, HRMT 620 Class Notes 6, 2013). This management process has had some problems in the host countries local population managers, or inpatriate managers (Maley, 2011). You must insure that the inpatriate managers are developed as much as your in-country managers are if they are to gain a sustainable competitive advantage.The performance appraisals written for your inpatriate managers must be reflective of the cultural norms of their country and still keep the performance to the standards your company requires. This form of management has been shown to be difficult for many organizations (Maley, 2011) although it has worked well in other casinos in Macau. The aligning of employee needs and organizationa l needs can be seen in job satisfaction and internal service quality. It is necessary to have positive employee relationships with organizational commitment, which is extremely important to hospitality companies, such as casinos, for competitive advantage.With respect to the impact of job satisfaction on turnover, many studies conclude that highly satisfied employees are less likely to seek new employment. The most important link to job satisfaction, especially in other countries, are Ã¢â¬Å"hygiene factorsÃ¢â¬Â linked to work environment and work conditions. In a casino environment, job stress can typically result from constantly changing work shifts and being closely watched by players and surveillance cameras; this should be closely monitored. Macau casino employees have a greater problem with job stress. Stress has been shown to lead to job dissatisfaction and may lower customer service quality.Minimizing job stress is an important aspect of job satisfaction for casino workers (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009). The most important part of performance management is the linking of the individual performance with the objectives of the business (Stiles , et al. , 2006). Performance management also requires periodic coaching and advising to maintain motivation and organizational vision. Another theory is reward management; this would attract highly skilled employees by using pay incentives to align employee interest with the business and the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests.Rather than acting as a guiding tool, reward management can remove fixed costs in employee wage. Operating based on mutuality, and typically emphasizing the notion of shared responsibility, employees stand to do well if the firm performs well and vice versa. There is also an increasing view of companies to view talent effectively as a strategic priority. Talent management theory uses recruitment practices that follow a talent pool strategy where the company first recruits the best people and then pl aces them into positions rather than trying to recruit specific people for specific positions (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009).This process need a large applicant pool to draw from and therefore this would not be an effective method for Casino XÃ¢â¬â¢s global resource management team to use, as there are not enough specifically qualified people in your host country to generate a sufficient pool of talent from which to draw. Total Quality Management (TQM) is the most well-known management theory; the most appealing part of TQM is that it is not stagnant. TQM is an evolving and changing management system that works by fitting the company, the employees and the ever-changing market.This would be the best way to manage your business. TQM works by using the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"improvement through transformationÃ¢â¬Â (Gliddon, HRMT 620 Class Notes 5, 2013). One of the major factors you must consider when using TQM from a management standpoint is how much commitment are you willing to give to change, realizing that if the management is not a part of the change the employees will not follow. Also, remember that the process is not a short-term solution it is a long-term commitment to success (Chen & Chuang, 2013).You must understand that the impact on how your managers perform their jobs is directly affected by how you distribute the information regarding changes you make and the results of those changes. Your employees will be more concerned with being rewarded. Leadership in regards to change should understand that rewarding employees for their efforts and change in behavior during and after the change event is important and has a direct impact to how they perform their jobs. Casino XÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership must realize that the support of a large number of resources including the employees is necessary to implement their change program (Peterson, 2010).Above all there will need to be orientation training, learning about the cultures of the employees and the host countr y. Learning is a continuous process, and global learning is the ability of an organization to review its progress continuously, to learn from its experiences, and to transfer the knowledge and expertise developed in each part of its global network to all other parts worldwide (Ling & Jaw, 2006). Casino X Macau must have a first-class casino labor force to be competitive.Presently there are only a few things that need to be done to improve the casino employees work performance. The most important of these is to improve employees interpersonal skills and to strengthen the person-to-person interactions of Macao casinos customer service practices. Additionally, employees language ability should be enhanced for both Mandarin fluency and English knowledge so that Casino X Macau can meet the demand of an expanding Mainland Chinese market and the need for becoming a more internationalized market and workplace (Gu, Siu, & Chi, 2009).High-performing companies have integrated their cor e values into the human capital resource process: how they attract, hire, and develop talent; manage performance; compensate employees; and so on. Methods for developing and maintaining a strong culture should be systematically used. These methods should focus on attitudes and cultural fit in the selection process, on secondary socialization and training, and performance management.The methods that Casino X should use are built around company core values and use both symbolic and values-based leadership (Stiles , et al. , 2006). Training programs need to be established that create a foundation upon which to base continuing training. A multinational organization needs the ability to train cross-cultural teams. These teams will ensure high levels of collaboration and performance. However, before you decide how to train your employees you must consider how you will recruit them.The socialization process begins with recruitment in that the organization is likely to select new members wh o already have the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬Â set of attitudes, beliefs, and values (Stiles , et al. , 2006). It was found that high-performing companies have instilled their core values into every process. Their vision is instilled in how they attract, hire, and develop their employee base, how the company manages performance, and how they compensate employees. Casino X needs to focus on attitudes and cultural fit in the selection process with an emphasis on secondary socialization andtraining. Leadership must insure that the performance management and compensation & benefits systems are built around company core vision and that they are the example of the symbolic and values-based leadership. All levels of the company have a role in the hiring and keeping of quality employees. The human resource department should be responsible for developing the strategy, policy and basic infrastructure of the hiring process. They will also need to provide translation and coordination of global issu es in Macau.The closer to the country you are working in the more detailed your human resources department should be, locally in country, they should deal with national polices and locally specific policies. It is not good enough to adopt a best practice policy without considering the cultural implications, United States best practice will not always work in other countries. Casino X Macau will have to insure that their recruiting practices align with all level of their business needs and insure they are complying with all local and country laws and policies.As I have previously noted in our discussions, it is quality of leadership that is ultimately responsible for ensuring congruence between the various aspects of the organization, its environment, and strategies (Stiles , et al. , 2006). Part of that responsibility will be the training of your employees. When hiring expatriates it is imperative that you do some sort of cultural training, and would be more productive if you conduc t cross training, so that both the expatriate employees and the host country employees can learn about each other in a controlled environment.Commonly used techniques to develop cross-cultural teams are the cognitive approach and the experiential approach. These approaches to cross training focus on building a greater level of understanding and respect between employees of different cultures. Encouraging your employees in the process of discussing variations in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will help in increasing their level of cooperation and enhance their ability to get the work done in a profitable manner.Additionally you can add training to enhance other leadership qualities such as communications, listening skills, conflict resolution, negotiation skills, and problem solving (Scullion & Collings, 2006). As for the original Casino X, I again recommend cultural sensitivity training, due to the large influx of Mexican immigrants to the area. The Mexican culture is much more rel ationship based than that of the United States. Research shows that Mexicans form loyalties to individuals versus companies. Much of their impressions about the new company will be formed at orientation.I would also recommend that the orientations include time with the departments they are working with, it has been shown that starting the employees with face-to-face contact with those they will work with will provide a better employee base (Carrillo, 2006). Remember that change is difficult for many people, but in the end is very profitable if managed correctly. Ã¢â¬Å"Strong resistance to change is often rooted in deeply conditioned or historically reinforced feelings. Patience and tolerance are required to help people in these situations to see things differently (Chapman, 2012). Ã¢â¬Â\r\n'